chapter -4 Behavioural Genetics

Womenshowedpreferenceforsymmetricalfacesandothersignso

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Unformatted text preview: ussurvive physicallyandreproducesuccessfully - Evolutionarytheoristsregardbasicpersonalitytraitsasbeingsculptedbynaturalselection untiltheybecomepartofhumannature - Biologically,peoplehadtoask5basicquestionswhentheyinteractwithanotherperson, inorderorimportance 1. IspersonXactiveandominantorpassiveandsubmissive?CanIdominateXorwillI havetosubmittoX? 2. IspersonXagreeableandfriendly,orhostileanduncooperative? 3. CanIcountonX?IsXconscientiousanddependable? 4. IsXsane(stable,rational,predictable?Orcrazy(unstable,unpredictable,possibly dangerous) 5. HowsmartisX,andhowquicklycanXlearntoadopt? - Humanbeingsarecapableofchangingtheirbehaviorinordertoadapt MatingSystemsandParentalInvestment - Atoneextremespeciesmakelotsofoffspringandofferlittletonocareaboutthesurvival ofthem Eg.Fishlayingeggs - Attheotherend,littleoffspringsareproduced,butareprotectedandcaredforuntilthey areselfsufficientandcapableofsurvivingontheirown Eg.Humansandelephants - Onedifferenceacrossspeciesisparentalinvestmentwhichreferstothetime,effort, energy,andriskassociatedwithcaringsuccessfullyforeachoffspring Iftheinvestmentisunequal,thenthatmatewillbemorediscriminatinginchoosing amateandwillbemorerigorouslycompetedfor Eg.Womenhavetogothroughgestation,breastfeeding - Iffemaleinvestmentishighwhilemaleinvestmentislow,thenpolygynywouldbemost Psych 1000 My Notes Page 25 - Iffemaleinvestmentishighwhilemaleinvestmentislow,thenpolygynywouldbemost commonbecausemalescanmaximizetheirfitnessbyreproducingwithmanyfemales Thiswouldyieldinlargerandstrongermalesbecauseithelpsthemcompeteforthe female - Ifbothmaleandfemaleinvestmentishighthenmonogamousmatingsystemismore likely Itisunlikelythatasingleparentcansuccessfullyraiseanoffspring Monogamousspeciesshowlittlesexualdimorphisminsizeorstrengthand competitioncomesfrombothsexes - Polyandryiswhenfemalesmateswithmanymalesandisseeninsomefish,insects,and birds Thefemalesausuallylarger,stronger,andmoreaggressive - Polyganandryiswhenallmembersofagroupmatewithallothermembersofthegroup Foundinprimatessuchaschimpanzeesandbonobochimps Onewaytoreducecompetitionforamateandallowsthemtobemorepeaceful species - Birthcontrolhasalteredmuchoftheselectivepressureforspecificmatingpatterns - Womengenerallyhavetooffermoreparentalinvestment MatePreference - Mostcommonmatepreferencescomefromanevolutionaryperspective - Menandwomenratemutualattraction,dependability,andemotionalstabilityasthe...
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