Separation Process Principles- 2n - Seader & Henley - Solutions Manual

This minimum work is independent of the process

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Unformatted text preview: ways positive. This minimum work is independent of the process. Exercise 1.4 Subject : Use of an ESA or an MSA to make a separations. Given: Differences between an ESA and an MSA. Find: State the advantages and disadvantages of ESA and MSA. Analysis: With an MSA, an additional separator is needed to recover the MSA. Also, some MSA will be lost, necessitating the need for MSA makeup. If the MSA is incompletely recovered, a small amount of contamination may result. The use of an MSA can make possible a separation that can not be carried out with an ESA. An ESA separation is easier to design. Exercise 1.5(b) Subject: Producing ethers from olefins and alcohols. Given: Process flow diagram and for production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Find: List the separation operations. Analysis: The reactor effluent contains 1-butene, isobutane, n-butane, methanol, and MTBE. The separation steps are as follows: Separation Step Products Distillation Distillate: all C4s, methanol Bottoms: 99 wt% MTBE L/L Extraction with water Extract: methanol, water Raffinate: C4s Distillation Distillate: methanol to recycle Bottoms: water for recycle Exercise 1.6(c) Subject: Conversion of propylene to butene-2s. Given: Process flow diagram and for production of butene-2s. Find: List the separation operations. Analysis: The reactor effluent contains ethylene, propylene, propane, butene-2s, and C5+. The separation steps are as follows: Separation Step Products Distillation Distillate: ethylene Sidestream: propylene, propane Bottoms: butene-2s, C5+ Distillation Distillate: propylene Bottoms: propane Distillation Distillate: butene-2s Bottoms: C5+ Exercise 1.7 Subject: Use of osmosis for separating a chemical mixture. Given: The definition of osmosis. Find: Explain why osmosis can not be used for separating a mixture. Analysis: Osmosis is the transfer of a solvent through a membrane into a mixture of solvent and solute. Thus, it is a mixing process, not a separation process. Exercise 1.8 Subject: Osmotic pressure for the separation of water from sea water by reverse osmosis with a membrane. Given: Sea water containing 0.035 g of salt/cm3 of sea water on one side of a membrane Molecular weight of the salt = 31.5 Temperature = 298 K Pure water on the other side of a membrane Find: Minimum required pressure difference in kPa across the membrane Analysis: The minimum pressure difference across the membrane is equal to the osmotic pressure of the sea water, since the osmotic pressure of pure water on the other side is zero. The equation given for osmotic pressure is π=RTc/M. R = 8.314 kPa-m3/kmol-K T = 298 K c = 0.035 g/cm3 = 35 kg/m3 M = 31.5 kg/kmol Minimum pressure difference across a membrane = ( 8.314 ) ( 298) ( 35 ) = 2, 750 kPa π= 31.5 Exercise 1.9 Subject: Use of a liquid membrane to separate the components of a gas mixture Given: A liquid membrane of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, maintained between two sets of microporous, hydrophobic hollow fibers, packed into a cell, for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gas. R...
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This document was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course CBE 2124 at NYU Poly.

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