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Ex. Some schistosomes (blood flukes) avoid antibody
attack by coating themselves with proteins of the host
before antibodies become numerous. PREDATION
Prey = - Predator typically larger than prey and less specific than
parasites - often exploit many different species. Adaptations/Defenses Of Prey
1. Hide, run away
2. Weapons/Active Defense
- Foul-smelling or stinging secretions.
Ex. skunk, whip scorpion, bombardier beetles
- Spines or armored body coverings.
Ex procupines and armadillos
- Appearance/posture match background color & pattern.
Ex. Stick insect
- Break up body form with black and white.
Ex. zebra, tapir, tiger salamander 4. Warning coloration/Aposematism
- Contain noxious chemicals.
(Produce themselves or accumulate from food plant).
- Advertise with conspicuous color patterns - black
w/yellow, orange or red stripes.
- Innate or learned avoidance response by predators.
Ex. Monarch butterfly, yellow jackets, coral snakes,
- Why aren’t all prey species noxious or unpalatable?
- Palatable organisms evolve to resemble noxious ones.
6. School/flock/herd Formation
- Predator detection, dilution & confusion effects, group
defense. Inducible Defenses
- Defenses triggered by presence of predators.
2. - Disadvantage? Ex. Predator-induced changes in body morphology in
Crucian carp the predator won't ﬁt in the mouth any
longer and so therefore it can't be
eaten by a pike --> however it takes more
energy to get to this size a...
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