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White collar upper to middle class examples managerial

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Unformatted text preview: about gender differences Unions 2 Unions 2011 • The number of workers belonging to a union is about 14.8 million • Union members accounted for 11.8% of employed wage and salary workers • In 1983, union membership rate was 20.1% • Public sector workers had a union membership rate nearly 5 times that of private sector employees • Education, training, and library occupations had the highest unionization rate among all occupations, at 36.8% • Protective service occupations at 34.5% • (In the public sector you are more likely to have union representation than in a private sector) Union: Gender, Race and Age • Men 12.4% vs. women 11.2% • African Americans: 13.5% • Whites: 11.6% • Asian Americans: 10.1% • Hispanics/Latino: 9.7% • Age: 55 to 64 years old 15.7% • 16 to 24 years old: 4.4% States with high and low union membership • Over 20%: New York, Alaska, Hawai’i Below 5%: North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Tennessee • Unions o Ghost unions o Labor laws o Environmental laws §༊ Salaries kept low §༊ Environmental standards not maintained Feminization of poverty Taken over by women, 80- 90% are young women, docile work force, not going to organize, for better working conditions, vulnerable away from families Minimum wage Lowest amount of money one can be paid Labor Sectors 3 Primary Labor Sector Upper- tier & Lower Tier • Upper- tier o Historically represented by white men o High salaried or self- employed workers, high status, autonomy and usually supervisory capacity. (“White Collar” upper to middle class) §༊ Examples: Managerial, professional; Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations; Sales representatives, commodities, and finance; Farm operators and managers • Primary Labor Sector Lower- tier o High salaries because union jobs, but less autonomy. (“Blue Collar, middle to working class) §༊ Examples: Health assessment and treating; Technologist & technicians, except health; Protective service; Precision production, craft, and repair; Transportation occupations; Material moving equipment operators (“Blue Collar” unionized; working class) • Secondary Labor Sector Upper- tier o Historically represented by women and men of color. Low wages, few or no benefits, little opportunity for advancement §༊ Upper- tier: Health technologists & technicians; Other sales, Administrative support occupations, including clerical; Machine operators and tenders; Fabricators, assemblers, inspectors • Secondary Labor Market Lower- tier o Few if any benefits o Usually part time §༊ Private household occupations; Service occu...
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