ESS 106 Lecture 05 June 2013

Height of eruption column jet stream winds flow near

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Unformatted text preview: for those with heart conditions –  Erosion of teeth –  Skin rash –  Irritation of nose, throat, lungs •  HF (hydrofluoric acid) –  Changes in bone structure, chronic irritation of nose, throat, lungs The Climatic Effects of Volcanic Eruptions and Other Gas Hazards •  Our atmosphere is the most vulnerable part of our earth •  Thin enough that we can change its composition What Determines if an Eruption Will Affect Climate "  Height of the eruption column "  Location of the volcano (latitude) "  Amount of sulfur in the magma 1. Height of Eruption Column Jet stream winds flow near the tropopause: aerosols in eruption columns that penetrate to elevations above the tropopause can be transported around the globe. Jet stream winds clouds Greenhouse Effect •  Atmospheric gases absorb and emit solar energy (infrared radiation) •  Greenhouse gases trap energy (heat) at the Earth’s surface Greenhouse gases •  water vapor •  carbon dioxide •  methane •  nitrous oxide Volcanic Haze effect Fine particles and gas which absorbs solar radiation and scatters it back to space "  " GAS is more effective at this than particles are (believe it or not) Volcanic Haze effect Sulfur combines with water vapor in the stratosphere "  " Forms dense clouds of sulfuric acid droplets " These clouds absorb solar radiation " Leads to GLOBAL COOLING The Lowdown: Volcanic Gas •  Major gases (H2O, CO2, SO2) •  Three main controls on whether or not an eruption will affect global climate –  Height of the column –  Latitude of the volcano –  How much gas was in the eruption •  Global (climate-changing) effects of volcanic eruptions –  Generally short term –  Both warming and cooling potential –  Cumulative effect not well understood •  Other types of gas hazards around volcanoes –  Invisible gases that suffocate –  Acid rain Long term climate change Volcanoes produce small blips on the main trend How to Date Volcanic Events? Stratigraphy •  Sequence of events preserved in rock layers •  Oldest event = lowest layer •  Young event = higher layer Chronology Methods to obtain an absolute date •  Dendrochronology (tree ring dating) •  Coral Rings •  Glacial ice core dating (Greenland) •  Radiometric dating –  Carbon-14 dating Dendrochronology Tree-ring Dating Dating Coral Rings •  Coral has growth rings, just like trees •  You can slice them in half and analyze each growth ring –  C14, and other trace elements Coral cross section showing Growth rings •  In this way, you can establish a relationship, or correlation between tree rings and coral rings •  This st...
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This document was uploaded on 02/24/2014 for the course ESS 106 at University of Washington.

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