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Unformatted text preview: e Latin word for chain, is a series or linkage of concepts or objects, especially
writings such as essays or short stories; as applied to soil science, a catena is a soil association
of a limited area derived from common parent material or source rocks that provide it with
characteristics distinguishing it from other soil associations of the larger area or drainage basin.
Cation exchange capacity (of a colloidal material) is the excess of oppositely charged ions in
proximity to a charged clay or mineral surface (or layer) that can be exchanged for other
cations; it is usually expressed in milliequivalents of cations that can be exchanged in a soil or
sediment sample with a dry weight of 100 grams.
Cave is any natural subsurface macro opening, or chamber, or series of openings or chambers;
caves form through a variety of processes in most rock types but most commonly are the result
of solution of carbonate rocks, particularly limestone, by the movement of ground water.
10 Channel is a natural, or constructed, passageway or depression of perceptible linear extent
containing continuously or periodically flowing water and sediment, or a connecting link
between two bodies of water.
Channel erosion is the detachment and transport, possibly followed quickly by re-deposition, of
soil particles or channel-bed material by concentrated flow in areas of open-channel flow.
Channel-geometry method, based on hydraulic geometry, is a technique of indirectly
estimating streamflow characteristics by recognizing that the size of an alluvial channel is
indicative of the water conveyed through it, and that the shape of the channel is largely the
result of the sediment transported by the stream.
Channel, or fluvial, island is a landform that rises above and is surrounded by stream
passageways and which persists a sufficient time so that persistent vegetation can develop if
adequate moisture is available.
Chézy equation is an empirical formula relating stream velocity, V, to controlling variables R,
hydraulic radius and energy slope, S: V = C[RS]1/2, in which C (which is analogous to the
Manning coefficient, n) is a constant of proportionality.
Chinook is a regional name in alpine areas of North America for vertical, cyclonic-induced,
foehn winds; chinook winds typically occur in the winter, result from the downslope movement
of relatively warm, dry air, and often are especially strong in valleys of east-flowing mountain
streams. Because chinook winds may be quite strong, they can be very damaging and erosive,
causing snapping and uprooting of trees and eolian entrainment of soil and sediment particles
as coarse as fine gravel.
Cirque is typically a deep, steep-walled, bowl-shaped (or partial bowl-shaped) depression
formed by glacial erosion of bedrock in the uppermost snow-accumulation high alpine areas;
cirques of lower-relief alpine areas may have walls of moderate steepness and relatively
shallow bowl-like depressions. The term cirque is sometimes applied to similar bowl-like
geomorphic features formed by other than glacial processes.
Clay, as used in sedimentology as opposed to mineralogy, is fluvial sediment defined to be of
particle diameter no greater than 0.002 mm; some systems define the upper size limit to be
Climate describes the characteristics and variability of weather at a site or specified area;
included are precipitation, temperature, humidity, and derivative elements such as barometric
pressure, wind velocity, dew point, and measures of cloud cover. Climate is one of the basic
controls of soil and landscape development, the movement of water, erosion, and vegetation.
Climatology is the science or study of climate, including its effects on the physical and biological
resources of the area of interest; it is a quantitative description of the spatial and temporal
variability of climate characteristics over areas of land and water. 11 Cluster, as applied to issues of bed load and the formation of small-scale bed forms in the
surface layer of gravel-bed alluvial channels, can be either a discrete or individually organized
grouping or interconnected structures comprised of a network of bed-material or bed-load
particles that rises above the level of areas of adjacent channel bed; clusters occur in any part
of a channel, including near the edge, near the thalweg, and on bars. The dynamics of clusters
(which are loosely subdivided and named by shape, such as pebble, line, comet, ring, and
heap), that is processes of their formation, are not well understood.
Coastal dune, including coastal dune field, is an accumulation, or concentration, of beach sand
primarily by wave-action sorting processes as a low, small-scale mound, ridge, or, more
commonly, a complex (field, or zone) of mounds and ridges along coastlines of oceans, seas,
and other large water bodies; if active they may be bare, or, if inactive, they may be partially to
fully vegetated. Coastal dunes are subject to translocation, without a basic loss of scale or
structure, by wave action or wind.
Cobble, as fluvi...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ES 322 at Western Oregon University.
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- The Adventures of Tom Sawyer