Because it remained under spanish rule and people

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Unformatted text preview: e pretty independent • - hotbed for Calvinism, didn’t like authority of church o large alter- pieces were distracting, and were symbols of the Catholic church, need to get rid of it • - but Philip wanted everyone to be Catholic, so he took away power from local dukes and put in Spanish authorities to catch heretics o severe politics led to rebellion • - 1566 – Protestant mobs looted and destroyed churches, period of iconoclasm o motivated by Calvinism, but to attack Spain also (a little more so than against Catholicism) • - Duke of Alba, took control, 1560/70 o was Spanish guy, held a court and killed tons of people a day • - William, Prince of Orange (William the Silent) o 1568, marks beginning of 80 year’s war, was against Spain, eventually defeated Duke of Alba • - in the South, ton of people forced to leave because it remained under Spanish rule and people were given ultimatum to become Catholic or leave • - 1609 12 years truce with Spain – Dutch Republic, 1648 Treaty of Munster o Dutch Republic (Dutch Baroque), Spanish Netherlands (Flemish Baroque) • - Antwerp is center of Netherlands in 17th century o 3 major figures: Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van dyck, Jordaens (?) • • Peter Paul Rubens • - parents were Calvinist and very educated, actually born in Germany • - fled Antwerp to Cologne, his dad became adviser to Anna of Saxony, husband of William the Silent, and had an affair with her • - parents became Catholic shortly before they died • - then they moved back to Antwerp o lot of looting and iconoclasm in Antwerp, Counter- Ref. stuff - stopped school and needed a job, served as a page in noble’s house - became artist at 14, had 2 artists o Otto van Veen, Last Supper, 1592 very popular art master o Adam van Noort, John the Baptist Preaching, 1601 rigid classicism? • - Adam and Eve in Paradise, 1599 o interest in Italian form • - 1600 he leaves for Venice, works for some Duke, there for 8 years o Venetian artists – vibrant color o studied Sistine Chapel, liked Caravaggio’s work o these styles different than van Veen and van Noort styles • - Rubens in Rome: St. Helena with the True Cross, 1601- 2 o important pilgrimage church o still in Otto van Veen style, kind of contrived • - supposed to bring gifts to Philip III to suck up to him o Duke of Lema on Horseback painting • - Portrait of the Marchesa Brigida Spinola- Doria, 1606 o goes to Genoa and does this o starts new popular style: full length aristocratic painting versus contemporary aristocratic portrairs, they were more stiff and dry • - establishes big workshop and career in Flanders, style has changed...
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