Africa, Mexico, Spain

Egalitarian peasant society develop shock cavalry

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Unformatted text preview: puts monks and peasants in plains, repopulates frontier, establishes dividing line between Christians and Muslims - peasants acquire property rights, get farms, so never have large feudal estates in Spain • peasants own land, horses, weapons strange phenomenon • need to be able to defend themselves - Alfonso VI of Castile known for besieging Toledo, right in center of Spain, falls to him in 1085 • disaster for Muslims, strategically and psychologically • beginning of significant loss of Muslims - why are Christians successful? • egalitarian peasant society • develop shock cavalry • place monasteries along frontier • Muslims fighting against themselves (Berbers, Slavs, etc.), don’t have official ceremony for leader - second stage: go to war against Almoravids (1086- 1146) - Almoravids are very puritanical, interpret Quran literally - defeat Alfonso VI - El Cid, only Spaniard to ever defeat Almoravids in battle - El Cid sets up own kingdom in Valencia, keeps Muslim from going north to sack Barcelona • basically becomes king in his own right • becomes pattern, have a bunch of enterprising men who want to set up own kingdoms • becomes highest ideal for Spaniards - Alfonso I of Aragon, the Battler, is the next successful reconquistador - can’t reclaim Cordoba, but goes to help Southern Spain because they ask for help, not successful, but when he leaves, the Muslims kick all Jews and Christians out, lines harden - third phase of war: war against the Almohads (1146- 1218) - come from North Africa - fight against both Almoravids and Spain - meet at battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, and the king of Castile (Fernando III) is successful, pretty much guarantees that Iberia will become Christian - only thing that remains Muslim is kingdom of Granada, until 1492 - reasons for Granada’s success • terrain is difficult to conquer, lots of mountains • huge population • many Muslim re...
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