COMM 292 Angela Kelleher Notes - Topic 1 – Perception,...

COMM 292 Angela Kelleher Notes
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Topic 1 – Perception, Emotions, Values Perceptions Does not equal reality What Influences Perception: 1. The Perceiver emotions, attitudes, personality, motives, experiences 2. The Target how loud, attractive/unattractive, moving 3. The Situation context of everything, location, day vs night time Perceptual Errors: Attribution Theory 1. Distinctiveness if behaviour is same across variety of situations = internal 2. Consensus if everyone would behave in the same way = external 3. Consistency the behaviour the same every time = internal -Selective Perception seeing what we want to see to make sense of the situation; angel with friends -Halo effect drawing a general impression based on one characteristic, Contrast effect reaction to one person put against another, Stereotyping judging based on group, prejudice dislike because of stereotype Personality = Stable, unchanging, consistent with how they react and interact with people Big 5 Personality Test: 1. Openness – (incentive/curious vs consistent/cautious) 2. Conscientiousness – (efficient/organized vs easy-going/careless) 3. Extraversion – (outgoing/energetic vs shy/reserved) 4. Agreeableness – (friendly/compassionate vs competitive/outspoken) 5. Neuroticism – (sensitive/nervous vs secure/confident) Machiavellianism – ends justifies means, Narcissism —i love me, Type A – get shit done, Type B – relax Emotions = intense feelings directed at someone/something that come and go, Moods = less intense and lack stimulus + keep for longer Emotional Labour – performing organizationally desired emotions e.g faking being nice Emotional dissonance – inconsistencies with emotions they feel and emotions they show Surface acting – hiding feelings to display what is required e.g boothgirls Deep acting – convincing yourself to feel one way, worst one Emotional intelligence – reduce stress, read situations, optimize environment Emotions vary between countries pride in U.S.A vs China
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Values = a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally preferable than the other - Rokeach’s Value Terminal Values—desirable end states, instrumental values – ways to behave to reach end states. Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures 1. Power Distance: high = accepting of how much power is distributed, comfortable with inequality 2. Individualism: high = prefer to act as individuals, low = collectivism, tight social framework 3. Masculinity vs Femininity: M = men should be this, female should be that. F = overlap 4. Uncertainty Avoidance: high = feels threatened by uncertain situations, need laws. South Africa 5. Long T = future, persistence, saving. Short T = tradition, past and present (asia) Shared Values = most positive work attitude, lower turnover, greater productivity Generational Differences: Elders(over 60): belief in authority, discipline, play by rules. Baby Boomers (1940-1960): spoiled, rejection of authority, environment + equality. Generation X
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