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Bio Final - Chapter 50 Biogeography II What is a biome What...

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Chapter 50: Biogeography II What is a biome? What broad scale factors primarily influence the distribution of terrestrial biomes? o Biome: major types of ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water o Factors of distribution in terrestrial biomes Vertical Stratification E.g. forest = emergents, canopy, understory, shrub layer, forest floor Precipitation Equatorial region and land mass features Climate Productivity Animal/plant life o Biomes Tropical Forest Equatorial/subtropical distribution Tropical rain forests and tropical dry forests Air temps are warm Vertical strat: competition for light Highest animal diversity of any biome Deserts Band of hot deserts at 30N and S latitudes Also occur at other latitudes in interior of continents Precipitation is very very low <30cm per year Plants include succulents (water storage) Animals have adaptations to limited water Savannas Equatorial and sub-equatorial regions Air temp is warm Precip is 30-50cm per year; seasonal drought Scattered trees and grasses; fire-adapted High diversity of herbivorous mammals Chaparral Mid-latitude, coastal regions on several continents Precip is 30-50cm per year Rainy winters/dry summers (“Mediterranean climate”) Shrubs and small trees, grasses & herbs; fire-adapted Temperate grasslands Several continents Precip is 30-100cm per year Seasonal precip (dry winters, wet summers) Grasses & forbs dominate; fire- and drought-adapted
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Native large grazers (bison, wild horses) Coniferous forests AKA taiga, northern North America and Eurasia Precip is 30-70cm per year Winters cold and long Cone-bearing trees: pine, spruce, fir, hemlock Moose, bears, Siberian tigers Temperate broadleaf forests Mid-latitudes Precip is 70-200cm per year, no distinct seasonality Winters cold, summers hot and humid Diverse vertical layers (stratification) Deciduous trees (lose leaves each winter) Many animals hibernate, birds migrate Tundra Artic (high latitudes), alpine (High altitudes) Precip is 20-60cm (arctic) may exceed 100cm (alpine) Winters long and cold, short growing season Mostly Herbaceous vegetation (lichens, mosses, grasses, forbs, dwarf shrubs); large grazers, nesting sites for migratory birds Permafrost = permanently frozen layer of soil Chapter 51: Behavioral ecology What is behavior? o Part of animal’s phenotype o What we observe Animal’s muscular activity as it chases its prey or raises a fin in territorial display o Less obvious Bird song – forcing air from lungs and shaping sound Secretion of hormone to attract opposite sex o Learning Juvenile bird reproducing song Proximate vs. Ultimate Question o Prox: What is the immediate stimulus and mechanism for the behavior How does day length influence breeding? Production and response to particular hormones o Ultimate: evolutionary significance
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