Chapter 11.docx - Chapter 11 1. The Autonomic Nervous...

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Chapter 111.The Autonomic Nervous System (homeostasis; involuntary)a.Sympathetic Divisioni.Fight or flight1.Activated during exercise, excitement, and emergenciesb.Parasympathetic Divisioni.Rest and digest1.Concerned with maintenance and conservingc.Dual innervation in the autonomic nervous systemi.Both divisions of the ANS innervate most effector organsii.Primary function1.Regulate organs to maintain homeostasisiii.Parasympathetic and sympathetic activities tend to oppose each otherd.Anatomy of the automatic nervous system DIAGRAMi.Two neurons from CNS to effector organs1.Preganglionic neuron2.Postganglionic neuronii.Autonomic ganglia1.Communication from preganglionic to postganglionic neuron2.Intrinsic neuronsiii.Effector organs1.Cardiac muscle2.Smooth muscle3.Glandse.Anatomy of SNS DIAGRAMi.Preganglionic neurons originate in thoracolumbar spinal cordii.General anatomy1.Short preganglionic neurons to sympathetic chain2.Long postganglionic neurons from chain to effector organs3.Ganglia linked together in sympathetic chainiii.Exception to general anatomy1.Collateral ganglia – outside chain2.Adrenal medulla3.Adrenal Glanda.Sympathetic preganglion synapse in adrenal medulla wherechromaffin cells are (no axon)i.Release NT into blood streamiv.Sympathetic pathways to and from sympathetic chain1.Preganglionica.Exits via ventral root of spinal cord and enters spinal nerveb.Axons leave spinal nerve as white ramus and enter sympatheticgangliac.Communicate in ganglia with postganglionic neurons2.Postganglionica.Leave ganglia as gray ramus and re-enter spinal nervei.Enter via dorsal root
1.White ramus is off rampii.Exit via ventral root1.Gray ramus is on rampb.Travel to effector organ in spinal nervef.Physiology of the SNSi.Fight or flightii.Effect diffuse and long lastingiii.Specific effects1.Innervation of all arteries and veins2.Inhibition of digestion3.Increased heart rate4.Decreased saliva, tears, etc5.Dilation of the eyes, lifts the eyelid6.Increased mental alertnessg.Anatomy of the PSNSi.Preganglionic neurons originate in brainstem or sacral spinal cordii.Anatomy1.Long preganglionic neurons to ganglia near effector organ

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