hdfs-SG2 - HDFS 105 Fall 2007 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 7...

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HDFS 105 Fall, 2007 EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 7: Psychosocial Development 1. Define emotions and social referencing and discuss the functions that are served by emotional reactions (page 209-213). 2. Understand the following aspects of developing personality: trust, sense of self, independence (pages 217-218 and not covered in class). Know notes in class on the development of self understanding and how children at different ages describe themselves. Trust – Eirkson argues this is the first stage. Sense of self – Chapter 8: Physical & Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 1. Be able to describe children's thinking (and the limitations of their thinking) during Piaget's preoperational period of cognitive development (both substages). HINT: Know Concept of Conservation and why children can't solve conservation problems. Be able to give examples of egocentrism, animism, and transductive reasoning. Piaget: The preoperational Period (2 to 7 years) The capacity to mentally represent the world through the use of symbols. Concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, magical beliefs are constructed. 2 substages 1- Symbolic function substage (2-4 years) – Child gains capacity to mentally represent an object that is not present. Language, pretend play 2- Intuitive though substage (4 to 7 years) – Children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know answers to all kinds of questions. Preoperational Child lacks…. Conservation – The concept that quantity or amount of something stays the same regardless of changes in its shape of position.
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Why? - They center or fixate on one attribute at a time. - They pay attention to states and not transformations. - They do not recognize that operations are reversible. Other characteristics - Egocentricism – the lack of awareness of other perspectives - Animism – the belief that everything in the world is alive - Transductive reasoning – perception that is two things happen at the same time, one must cause the other. 2. Know the limitations & advances in attention, memory, & strategies during the preschool years (know the material under Information Processing, pages 254-257). Attention 1) Salient verses relevant dimensions – paying attention to things that stand out. 2) Planfulness – making quick judgments with looking at details Memory 1) There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. The younger the easier. 2) There are individual differences in susceptibility . The better the verbal skills the less susceptible. 3) Susceptibile to salient events. Chapter 9: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood 1. Describe self-conscious emotions, emotion language and understanding, emotion- coaching and emotion dismissing parenting, and regulation of emotion and peer relations (pages 278-279). OBVIOUS Existential self – 2 months – sense of existence
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