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14 Chapter12-Resources water

Petrochemicalsnecessary fertilizers pesticides energy

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Unformatted text preview: Relief International Food Aid and Famine­Relief • Imbalance between production and distribution • Governments, UN agencies, and NGOs • Some relief efforts end up controversial • Example: Somalia – militias controlling supplies • Both short­ and long­term solutions to world hunger pose problems • costs, including ‘famine fatigue’ • short­term aid undercuts local efforts to increase production • long­term solutions of economic development must take into account environmentally sound methods The ‘Green Revolution’ was effective The ‘Green Revolution’ The ‘Green Revolution’ may not be The ‘Green Revolution’ may not be effective now • Rice and wheat in Africa? • Petrochemicals necessary – fertilizers – pesticides Energy Energy • The Need for Energy – All states need energy to survive – Correlation of economic growth and energy consumption – World energy consumption increase each year – Major factor in WW II actions • Germany’s Southern Offensive in the USSR • The American Oil embargo and Pearl Harbor Petroleum Energy Petroleum Energy – The world’s most important source of energy – Role of OPEC – Regional differences in oil use are pronounced • Developed countries are gradually starting to use less oil • Developing countries are using more Source: Frontline, 2002 Top Oil Consuming Countries Top Oil Consuming Countries US Demand for Oil US Demand for Oil Energy and World Crises Energy and World Crises – The first major oil crisis was in 1973 • OPEC’s embargoes • Formation of the International Energy Agency (IEA) – The Iran­Iraq War (1980s) – The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (1990) – Russia and natural gas (2008/9) Energy other than oil Energy other than oil • Natural Gas – – – Cooking and heating Generally less polluting than oil Difficult and expensive to transport over long distances • Coal – Important source for generating electricity – Cheapest and most abundant fuel – Dirtiest fuel 2001 Data from British Petroleum The Problem with coal The Problem with coal Above: Arizona Strip Mine Mae Mo Coal Plant, Thailand, 2005 World Natural Gas Reserves Source: Oil & Gas Journal, 2005 The Problem with Natural Gas The Problem with Natural Gas Natural Gas is clean to burn, but … Natural gas must be converted into a form that can be transported The conversion process creates greenhouse gases LNG tankers are viewed as dangerous Other forms of Energy Other forms of Energy • Alternative energy ­ a fraction of world usage – Nuclear power • Clean and generally safe • Expensive and possible spectacular accidents • Weaponization and waste disposal – Hydroelectric power • Available only near major rivers • Serious environmental concerns ­ Three Gorges Dam – Solar and wind power • Still expensive and variable availability The Three Gorges Dam in China The Three Gorges Dam in China Source: Washington Post.com, 2006. Two million displaced by flooding The Untapped Energy Source­ The Untapped Energy Source­ Geothermal Modern geothermal plant ­ Iceland Drilling can cause earthquakes! Sweden’s New Food Labeling­ Sweden’s New Food Labeling­ kg of CO2 vs kg of food Estimated kgs of CO2 produced in one year for one serving per week of – beef 170 cod 50 pork 35 salmon 40 chicken 10 apples beans 9 New Zealand 4 France 2 pea soup 2 Sweden 1 Bottom Line on the Environment Bottom Line on the Environment • Challenges feed conflict, encourage cooperation • Long­run large­scale solutions needed ­ governments usually don’t provide these, especially democratic ones • Short to medium term solutions difficult to implement, create later problems...
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