chapter6 - CHAPTER 6 THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY(1216-1307 1...

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CHAPTER 6: THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY (1216-1307) 1. During the 13 th century, the institutions of medieval life reached maturity. a. Equilibrium was reached when institutions and ideals fashioned in earlier years met the needs of society. BARONS AND KNIGHTS 1. Medieval society was very hierarchical. a. King, 12 earls, 20-30 barons, knights and squires 2. Wealth was concentrated in the baronial class, and within that class, in the hands of a few. 3. The nobility managed their estates carefully to earn maximum profit. 4. The typical knight or squire lived in an unfortified house. 5. There was a building of larger castles for more protection and comfort. 6. Castle afforded the background for a life shaped by chilvalry. a. Virtues it extolled were prowess in battle, courage, loyalty, fidelity to one’s word, and generosity. b. Generosity was chief virtue. c. Virtue celebrated in chansons de geste - long narrative poems. 7. The Church developed the concept of the perfect knight. a. A devout Christina who served his lawful prince, put down crime, and aided the weak and helpless. b. Courtly ideal, Lyric poets- troubadours , glorified the great lady- greatest good in knight’s life. c. Courtly and religious ideals transformed the Welsh tales of King Arthur into romances that celebrated- i. Prowess in battle ii. Devotion to God iii. Worship of woman
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8. Tournaments became popular for amusement. a. Became great social occasions and training ground for young knights 9. Hunting was another favorite amusement. MANOR AND VILLAGE 1. The barons and knights of England drew their wealth from land, either from many manors scattered across many counties, or from one carefully managed manor. 2. Manor as an institution reaches greatest extent in thirteenth century. 3. Village dominated the peasant’s life; little connection to manor. 4. Villagers had voice in management of open fields surrounding them, but where there was only one lord of the manor or a dominant lord, the villagers acted through the manorial court. 5. Manor, not the village was working unit of agrarian life. 6. Note: Peasants= freemen Serfs= not free 7. Even among the serfs there was a hierarchy. 8. Serf was not a slave- possessed rights protected by the custom of the manor. a. Right to the produce grown on his strips of field b. Strips passed on to wife and then to eldest son when the serf died c. “Right of common”- greatest value because it allowed the peasant to graze livestock on the commons proper, on wasteland, and on the arable and meadow after the crops were harvested. 9. Manor court had various duties: a. It controlled the open fields b. Determined how many cattle each tenant might place on the pasture c. Witnessed the transfer of land d. Punished trespasses and theft 10. Bailiff was the lord’s man, responsible to him for administration of manor
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11.
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