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chapter7 - CHAPTER 7 WAR CRISIS(1307-1399 This outline is...

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CHAPTER 7: WAR & CRISIS (1307-1399) This outline is organized according to sub-headings in the chapter’s text. Sorry that it was so late, but it’s pretty lengthy and I thought the chapter had a lot of important information! Also, I don’t know if I need to cite any of this stuff, but a lot of the wording is out of the text. A. BACKGROUND 1. Between 1350 and 1400, England’s population was reduced by one-third. 2. A distinctive English language promoted national consciousness 3. There was a new, wealthy, educated laity, composed of gentlemen, merchants, and lawyers that showed interest in the material world. 4. Out of the crises and dislocations of the 14 th century came new values and new institutions -nationalism -capitalism -individualism -anti-clericalism 5. Monarchy remained and sought to not destroy, but capture its machinery. B. EDWARD II AND THE BARONS 1. Edward II: reigned from 1307-1327 until he was deposed and murdered. During his rule, the power of the aristocracy increased and the power of the crown diminished. He was an unfit kind, and it was impossible for him to recover from the problems his father left to him. His barons did not trust him, so they forced him to take a coronation oath and in March of 1310 they assigned to him a committee of 21 to draw up ordinances designed to remove the causes of past misgovernment. 2. Piers Gaveston: a young Gascon knight of caustic wit and tactless vanity of whom the barons did not approve. He may have been the subject of a homosexual crush of Edward’s, because there were many rumors that he was easily swayed by young men. He was killed because the Barons wanted him dead. 3. The events of Edward’s Rule -The council passed 41 ordinances, and Edward’s rule was marked by political failures. - He marched north to attempt to establish a victory over Scotland, but
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failed at the battle of Bannockburn. -Taxes and the cost of bread (crop failure) were high 4. These factors led the Barons to take over as ruling powers. However, they proved equally unsuccessful in office. Personal quarrels, regional loyalties, and the battle of extremes v. moderates divided the barons. In 1321 when Edward II found a new “favorite,” Hugh Despenser, he marched against the Barons. He defeated them and regained power. 5. How Edward II fell from power: Edward let Hugh run the country for a while, and then he decided to send Isabella, his wife, to France to negotiate a treaty with her brother, the King of France. Edward II made the mistake of letting her go with their son. She rallied forces with Mortimer and they invaded in 1326. Shocked by his people’s disloyalty, Edward was forced to abdicate. He was murdered in a highly illegal and brutal way that marked the sentiment that kings should govern by law, of which Parliament was the Guardian.
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