THEO206- Study Notes (Lesson 7-9).docx - THEO206: Study...

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THEO206: Study Notes (Lesson 7-9)Lesson 7: Christianity in the Fourth Century: the Trinitarian (Arian) Controversy)The Persecution of DiocletianThe Persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor Diocletian (303-305 AD)included:Destruction of churchesArrests of heads of churches – they would be released if they consented to libations and sacrifices (a test to detect Christians)Persecution continued until 312 AD, even after Diocletian was no longer emperor.Licinius and MaxentiusLicinius,in full Valerius Licinianus Licinius (died 325), was Roman emperor from 308 to 324. He was elevated to the rank of augustus (in 308) by his friend Galerius, who had become emperor. Galerius hoped to have him rule the west, but since Italy, Africa, and Spain were held by the usurper Maxentius, while Constantine reigned in Gaul and Britain, Licinius had to contenthimself with ruling Pannonia. When Galerius died in 311, Licinius took over Galerius' European dominions. He married Constantine's half sister Constantia (313). Licinius added the entire eastern half of the empire to his dominion.After a brief accord between the two augusti, Constantine forced Licinius to surrender the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia. There followed 10 years of uneasy peace in which Licinius built up his army and accumulated a huge reserve of treasure. In 324, Constantine defeated him at Adrianople and again at Chrysopolis. Licinius surrendered, was exiled to Thessalonica, and was executed the next year on a charge of attempted rebellion.While agreed upon in February 313, the Edict of Milan was officially proclaimed and implemented starting on June 5, 313, granting toleration to the Christians and restoring church property.Maxentius, Latin in full Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius (died 312), Roman emperor from 306 to 312. In 307 he took the title augustus. Maxentius at first controlled Italy and Africa but not Spain, which was controlled by Constantine. Maxentius was killed by Constantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312.Because the sources from this period reflect the propaganda of Constantine, they represent Maxentius as a brutal tyrant, although in actuality he stopped the persecution of the Christians. He built a huge basilica, which Constantine renamed after himself, and a temple to his son Romulus in the Roman Forum.
Constantine (306-338 AD)312 ADThe Battle of the Milvian Bridge:Maxentius (Roman Emperor) is killedConstantine has vision of the cross – “In this sign you will conquer”313 ADEdict of Milan (Constantine and Licinius):tolerance toward ChristiansChristian symbols appear on the coinagesentences passed by episcopal tribunals recognized as valid by the statechurches are given the right to inherit property (a measure allowing them to increase theirheritage)places of worship multiplyChristians rise to the highest posts in administrationthe first restrictive measures against pagan practicesthe cult of the emperor as in some way “equal of the Apostles”The Edict of Milan(Article on Slide 5)The Trinitarian Controversy

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Term
Fall
Professor
Dr.LucianTurcescu
Tags
Christology, The Bible, Trinity, Council of Chalcedon, First Council of Ephesus, The Confessions

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