L36L37_lipidmem_462A_2013sm

Nomenclature chain length of double bonds posi5ons

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Unformatted text preview: Xy acids in cardiovascular disease •  By ­product of hydrogenaFon of vegetable oils to either prevent degradaFon or to solidify at room temperature (e.g. margarine) FaXy acid and Health •  PotenFally harmful dietary fat •  Saturated fats (from animals) •  Trans fats •  PotenFally helpful dietary fat •  Monounsaturated / Polyunsaturated FaXy acid nomenclature •  FaXy acids consist of a carboxylic acid with an alkane or alkene “tail.” •  Nomenclature: chain length : # of double bonds (Δposi5ons of double bonds) Numbering starts at carboxyl carbon AlternaFve ω  ­ numbering starts from last carbon Omega ­3 FaXy Acid •  The ω carbon is the last carbon atom in the hydrocarbon chain •  A C=C double bond at the third carbon from the end is called the ω-3 (omega ­3) •  Studies have correlated consumpFon of ω ­3 faXy acid, EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid), with a variety of benefits –  products forFfied with EPA and DHA –  fish oil supplements Tri acyl glycerol •  A.k.a. triglycerides, fats, neutral fats •  3 faXy acids ester ­linked to a glycerol •  Energy storage Membrane lipids: general structure Nonpolar “tails” Polar “head” SchemaFc Structure of a Lipid Bilayer Polar Layer 1 Nonpolar •  molecules with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups amphipathic •  spontaneously form bilayers in water •  Membranes are sheet ­like structures, 2 molecules thick, or 60 to 100 Å across Layer 2 Polar What kinds of interac5on mediate the spontaneous forma5on of a lipid bilayer? Membrane lipids •  Glycerophospholipids •  Sphingolipids •  Galactolipids –  Plant cells •  Archaeal ether lipids –  Unique membrane lipids in archaebacteria •  Sterols Membrane lipids: faXy acids covalently linked to the backbone molecules glycerol or sphingosine Glycerol Sphingosine Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids Basic structure of membrane lipids •  From these basic structur...
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This test prep was uploaded on 02/25/2014 for the course BIOC 462A taught by Professor Ziegler,baldwin during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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