Midterm Review

Midterm Review - Sociology of Crime and Deviance Midterm...

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Sociology of Crime and Deviance Midterm Review Lecture Notes Lecture 1: What is Criminology/Crime/Deviance? o What is a crime? “A human act that violates the criminal law” Action is needed, not just thoughts Intent: not a mistake Harm must be done o What is deviance? Norm—social expectation of behavior; an understanding of what is acceptable good or bad Sanction—responses to behavior which can be either good or bad; rewards/punishments Deviance—deviant acts are those which violate social norms; endless list of deviant acts Difference between crime and deviance Crime is a subset of deviance which society thinks is more serious o Differentiation: only with the advent of laws comes the differentiation between deviance and crime o Modernity—the advanced technological modern world, social order etc. o From religious to secular Deviance understood as a sin, a crime against god Over history deviance has become purely secular o Rise of modernity: rationality, state bureaucracy o Social construction of Crime and Deviance Relativism—not going to renounce what is good or bad, just study what is taking place; what is considered good or bad may vary across cultures Social construction—the way our societies define things as good or bad o Cross national: some actions are crimes in certain countries but not others: drugs
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o Sociological variables explaining deviance/illegality Power Often the side in control of government establishes what is right or wrong Lobby groups try and gain power Interest groups Try and push for laws they seem fit Culture Media has a large impact on what is and isn’t acceptable Science and information Scientists spend time trying to prove and disprove certain affects of aspects such as drugs; often ignored and trumped by larger forces in society such as the media Lecture 2/3: Towards Modern Criminology/Classical Social Theories o Pre-Modern explanations: 10 commandments Church doctrine o Classical school Enlightenment influence Need to move beyond superstition to rational scientific knowledge Model of rational actor Since people have free will, crime is a rational choice Crime as a choice needs to be made undesirable through punishments; pain to the individual should be greater than rewards Demand for transparency People have to know what punishments are in advance o Positivist school—19 th century and Victorian Era Key Features: science, empirical approach, causes of crime, “criminal type”
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Started collecting information Tried to identify causes of criminality by identifying the “criminal type” Takes several forms: Biological: genes and genetics Psychological: IQ and intelligence Sociological: class, race, gender Biological Positivism: Cesare Lombroso “On Criminal Man” Argued that criminals were of a distinctive genetic type through
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course SOCY 141 taught by Professor Philipsmith during the Spring '07 term at Yale.

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Midterm Review - Sociology of Crime and Deviance Midterm...

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