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Unformatted text preview: n order to obtain a satisfactory schedule. Often
too, reserve will be added to critical path activities, often
in the form of a dummy activity, to ensure that schedule
commitments can be met for this WBS element.
Step 5: Integrate schedules of lower level WBS
elements, using suitable software, so that all
dependencies between WBS elements are correctly
included in a project network. It is important to include
the impacts of holidays, weekends, etc. by this point.
The critical path for the project is discovered at this step
in the process.
Step 6: Review the workforce level and funding
profile over time, and make a final set of adjustments to
logic and durations so that workforce levels and funding
levels are reasonable. Adjustments to the logic and the
durations of activities may be needed to converge to the
schedule targets established at the project level. This
may include adding more activities to some WBS
element, deleting redundant activities, increasing the
workforce for some activities that are on the critical
path, or finding ways to do more activities in parallel,
rather than in series. If necessary, the project level
targets may need to be adjusted, or the scope of the
project may need to be reviewed. Again, it is good
practice to have some schedule reserve, or float, as part
of a risk mitigation strategy.
The product of these last steps is a feasible
baseline schedule for each WBS element that is
consistent with the activities of all other WBS elements,
and the sum of all these schedules is consistent with
both the technical scope and the schedule goals for the
project. There should be enough float in this integrated
master schedule so that schedule and associated cost
risk are acceptable to the project and to the project's
customer. Even when this is done, time estimates for
many WBS elements will have been underestimated, or
work on some WBS elements will not start as early as
had been originally assumed due to late arrival of
receivables. Consequently, replanning is almost always
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