In those years nasa has operated on continuing

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Unformatted text preview: and Institutional Operating Plan (IOP) exercises in preparation for submittal of a preliminary NASA budget to the OMB. A final NASA budget is submitted to the OMB in September for incorporation into the President's budget transmittal to Congress, which generally occurs in January. This proposed budget is then subjected to Congressional review and approval, culminating in the passage of bills authorizing NASA to obligate funds in accordance with Congressional stipulations and appropriating those funds. The Congressional NASA Systems Engineering Handbook The Project Life Cycle for Major NASA Systems process generally lasts through the summer. In recent years, however, final bills have often been delayed past the start of the fiscal year on October 1. In those years, NASA has operated on continuing resolutions by Congress. With annual funding, there is an implicit funding control gate at the beginning of every fiscal year. While these gates place planning requirements on the project and can make significant replanning necessary, they are not part of an orderly systems engineering process. Rather, they constitute one of the sources of uncertainty that affect project risks and should be consided in project planning. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook Management Issues in Systems Engineering 4 Management Issues in Systems Engineering This chapter provides more specific information on the systems engineering products and approaches used in the project life cycle just described. These products and approaches are the system engineer's contribution to project management, and are designed to foster structured ways of managing a complex set of activities. 4.1 Harmony of Goals, Work Products, and Organizations When applied to a system, the doctrine of successive refinement is a "divide-and-conquer" strategy. Complex systems are successively divided into pieces that are less complex, until they are simple enough to be conquered. This decomposition results in several structures for describing the product system and the producing system ("the system that produces the system"). These structures play important roles in systems engineering and project management. Many of the remaining sections in this chapter are devoted to describin...
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