Operations research techniques often provide powerful

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Unformatted text preview: are assumed to be more or less immutable. That is, it is assumed that the resources with which the system operates cannot be changed, but that the way in which they are used is amenable to optimization. Operations research techniques often provide powerful tools for the optimization of system designs. Within NASA, terms such as mission analysis and engineering are often used to describe all study and design efforts that relate to determination of what the project's mission should be and how it should be carried out. Sometimes the scope is limited to the study of future projects. Sometimes the charters of organizations with such names include monitoring the capabilities of systems, ensuring that important considerations have not been overlooked, and overseeing trades between major systems— thereby encompassing operations research, systems analysis, and systems engineering activities. Total quality management (TQM) is the application of systems engineering to the work environment. That is, part of the total quality management paradigm is the realization that an operating organization is a particular kind of system and should be engineered as one. A variety of specialized tools have been developed for this application area; many of them can be recognized as established systems engineering tools, but with different names. The injunction to focus on the satisfaction of customer needs, for example, is even expressed in similar terms. The use of statistical process control is akin to the use of technical performance and earned value measurements. Another method, qualify function deployment (QFD), is a technique of requirements analysis often used in systems engineering. The systems approach is common to all of these related fields. Essential to the systems approach is the recognition that a system exists, that it is embedded in a supersystem on which it has an impact, that it may contain subsystems, and that the system's objectives must be understood preferably explicitly identified. 2.5 The Doctrine of Successive Refinement The realization of a system over its life cycle results from a succession of decisions among alternative courses of action. If the...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course E 515 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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