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Unformatted text preview: WBS for a Multiple Delivery Project. There are
several terms for projects that provide multiple
deliveries, such as: rapid development, rapid
prototyping, and incremental delivery. Such projects
should also have a product-based WBS, but there will
be one extra level in the WBS hierarchy, immediately
under the final prime product(s), which identifies each delivery. At any one point in time there will be both
active and inactive elements in the WBS.
A WBS for an Operational Facility. A WBS for
managing an operational facility such as a flight
operations center is analogous to a WBS for developing
a system. The difference is that the products in the PBS
are not necessarily completed once and then integrated,
but are produced on a routine basis. A PBS for an
operational facility might consist largely of information
products or service products provided to external
customers. However, the general concept of a
hierarchical breakdown of products and/or services
would still apply.
The rules that apply to a development WBS
also apply to a WBS for an operational facility. The
techniques for developing a WBS for an operational
facility are the same, except that services such as
maintenance and user support are added to the PBS,
and services such as systems engineering, integration,
and verification may not be needed.
4.3.3 Common Errors in Developing aWBS
There are three common errors found in WBSs: NASA Systems Engineering Handbook
Management Issues in Systems Engineering
• • Error 1: The WBS describes functions, not products. This makes the project manager the only
one formally responsible for products.
Error 2: The WBS has branch points that are not
consistent with how the WBS elements will be
integrated. For instance, in a flight operations
system with a distributed architecture, there is
typically software associated with hardware items
that will be integrated and verified at lower levels
of a WBS. It would then be inappropriate to
separate hardware and software as if they were
separate systems to be integrated at the system
level. This would make it difficult to a...
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