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The technology development activity should be managed

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Unformatted text preview: desirable, though team composition and leadership can be expected to change as the system progresses from phase to phase. change data, computing environments are interoperable, and product data are readily accessible and accurate. For more on the characteristics of automated environments, see for example Carter and Baker, Concurrent Engineering,1992. Technology Insertion. Projects are sometimes initiated with known technology shortfalls, or with areas for which new technology will result in substantial product improvement. Technology development can be done in parallel with the project evolution and inserted as late as the PDR. A parallel approach that is not dependent on the development of new technology must be carried unless high risk is acceptable. The technology development activity should be managed by the project manager and system engineer as a critical activity. Verification vs. Validation. The distinction between verification and validation is significant: verification consists of proof of compliance with specifications, and may be determined by test, analysis, demonstration, inspection, etc. (see Section 6.6). Validation consists of proof that the system accomplishes (or, more weakly, can accomplish) its purpose. It is usually much more difficult (and much more important) to validate a system than to verify it. Strictly speaking, validation can be accomplished only at the system level, while verification must be accomplished throughout the entire system architectural hierarchy. 3.8 Funding: The Budget Cycle NASA operates with annual funding from Congress. This funding results, however, from a three-year rolling process of budget formulation, budget enactment, and finally, budget execution. A highly simplified representation of the typical budget cycle is shown in Figure 9. NASA starts developing its budget each January with economic forecasts and general guidelines being provided by the Executive Branch's Office of Management and Budget (OMB). In early May, NASA conducts its Program Operating Plan (POP)...
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