Unformatted text preview: e two lanes were simulated separately.
Outputs of the ARENA simulation model were obtained both for driving lane and passing
The ARENA simulation model provided the desired outputs, such as queue
length, transfer time, and waiting time.
The animation feature of the ARENA simulation program was used. Animation
showed that traffic and merging behavior reflect real world conditions observed in the
In the outputs of the ARENA simulation program, it was observed that the
number of vehicles generated as a function of time of the day is very close to the actual
observed data. Therefore the IAT distributions developed appears to be correct.
The developed ARENA simulation model could not be fully evaluated over a
wide range of traffic volumes since the actual traffic volumes which were observed and
collected at I-76 Westbound were not high enough to cause queues in the lane reduction
area. In their study, Maze and Kamyab  state that traffic volumes less than 700
vehicles/hour (total for both lanes) do not result in any queues at the taper.
It is expected that the ARENA simulation model developed for the I-76
westbound construction work zone example will be very useful for future construction
zone modeling efforts. 118
In this study, a simulation model for a construction work zone where the number of lanes was reduced was developed using the ARENA simulation program. The cars and
the trucks in this model were represented by entity – transporter pairs.
However, the model has a number of limitations and therefore does not represent
the lane reduction situation (especially the acceleration and deceleration dynamics)
accurately. The vehicles on the driving lane do not decelerate when there is a queue
formed at the lane closure taper.
The simulation run time of the model in its present form also takes a considerable
time since the time compression factor is about 1:62, in other words 62 real time seconds
are simulated in 1 second. It roughly takes 30 minutes on a PC with 2.8 GHz processor to
simulate 24 hours of 2 lane car and truck traffic.
Unfortunately, the lane reduction traffic situation for which the data was collected
in the real world does not appear to produce queues or delay times, thus the developed
model has not been tested when considerable queues or delay times due to lane closures
No queues were observed during the data collection over the three day period,
therefore the model output appears to be correct for traffic situations and traffic volumes
observed. Similar non-queue observations were stated by Maze and Kamyab  for
traffic volumes of 700 vehicles/hour (for both lanes) or less. 119
In order to validate the ARENA simulation model, further analysis where there
are 2 lane traffic situations with a lane reduction to one lane and higher traffic volumes
resulting in queues at the taper will need to be studied in the future.
In addition, the model needs to be refined to include an algorithm for decreasing
the speeds of the vehicles in the driving lane when there are vehicles waiting at the lane
closure taper. The continuous modeling option in the ARENA simulation program can
also be explored and, if possible, included in the model. The use of the templates option
rather than extensive and repetitive groups of if statements could be explored and if
possible included in the model.
Further work will be required to model construction work zone situations where
there are entrance and exit ramps in the construction work zone. The model will need to
be refined to be more adaptable for different construction work zones with different sign
locations indicating that there is a lane reduction ahead. The model could be extended to
include the percentages of vehicles and speeds of the vehicles varying according to the
time of the day. The model could be made more user friendly so that a minimum
preparation work is required to run a particular simulation. 120
6  REFERENCES Balci, Osman, Guidelines for Successful Simulation Studies, Proceedings of the
1990 Winter Simulation Conference, 1990, pp. 25-32.  Maze, Tom and Kamyab, Ali, Work Zone Simulation Model: Companion Report
for Traffic Measurement Strategies for Merge Areas i Rural Interstate Work
Zones, Center for Transportation Research and Education Management Project
97-12, September 1999.  Gross, Donald and Harris, Carl M., Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, John
Wiley & Sons, Inc., Second Edition, 1985, pp. 13-35.  QuickZone, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, http://www.tfhrc.gov/its/quickzon.htm, accessed on 10/12/2004.
 A l-Kaisy, A., Stewart, J.A., and Van Aerde, M., Simulation Approach for
Examining Capacity and Operational Performance at Freeway Diverge Areas,
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol.26, No.6, December 1999, pp.760770.  Benekohal, Rahim F. and Abu-Lebdeh, Ghassan, Variability Analysis of Traffic
Simulation Outputs: Practical Approach for TRAF-NETSIM, Transportation
Research Record, No.1457, 1994, pp.198-207.  Bloomberg,...
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