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Unformatted text preview: y at the boiling point and the liquid and vapor
will come to equilibrium. On the other hand, if the boiling is allowed to continue and the vapor is
continuously removed, the temperature will rise. When it reaches θ1, the liquid
composition is given by the point R and the vapor in equilibrium with it will
have the composition denoted by the point D. If we continue this process of removing the vapor, the liquid will eventually
consist of pure component 1, all of component 2 having been removed as
vapor. If the vapor removed at each stage is allowed to condense to liquid and is
boiled again, eventually, the condensate will reach the composition of pure
component 2 (D → l′ → v′ → l″ → v″→.....) This is the principle behind the separation technique known as distillation. Azeotropes:
Positive Deviation from Raoult’s Law → Minimum boiling point mixtures. Fig. 5.8 Fig. 6.9 Negative Deviation from Raoult’s Law → Maximum boiling point mixtures: Fig. 5.9 Fig. 6.10 Azeotropes satisfy two conditions:
1. They boil at temperatures less than either of the pure compon...
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