*This preview shows
page 1. Sign up
to
view the full content.*

**Unformatted text preview: **n that their purpose is to make sure that the free energy calculated for nonideal solutions yield the correct result without changing the general form of the equation. Activities are denoted by the letter a, and is commonly expressed in terms of activity coefficients γ which, when multiplied by the molality of the species, yields the activity, i.e., a = γm. K a ? nR ? nS m nR m nS a nR a nS R S R S R S = nP nQ = nP nQ % nP nQ . aP aQ ?P ?Q mP mQ It is generally understood that in these equations, the units of the concentrations or activities are cancelled by a term-by-term division of the standard concentration. In order to keep the notation simple, we refrain from explicitly showing these terms as we have done in the case of KC above. Heterogeneous equilibrium: The activity of pure solids and liquids is accepted to be exactly equal to 1. Examples: 4.1 – 4.4, Problems: 4.1 – 4.5, 4.7 – 4.12, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.19 – 4.21, 4.24, 4.29 3 Le Chatelier Principle: If a system in dynamic equilibrium is disturbed, the system will adjust itself in such a way as to counteract, as far as possible, the effect of that change. Types o...

View
Full
Document