1 - 1 CNS brain spinal cord serves as collection pt of...

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1 CNS brain + spinal cord serves as collection pt of nerve impulses 2 PNS includes all nerves not in brain/spinal cord connects all body parts to CNS 3 What is the difference between CNS and PNS? Peripheral (sensory) NS receives stimuli CNS interprets stimuli Then the Peripheral (motor) NS initiates responses 4 What is the difference b/t Somatic and Autonomic NS? Somatic cranial+spinal nerves interactions b/t body/envir controls voluntary/conscious (skeletal muscles/sensory skin neurons) Autonomic mostly motor neurons controls involuntary smooth/cardiac muscles & glands deals w/ internal muscles (<3/kidneys/lungs) 5 How is the Autonomic NS divided and what does each do? Sympathetic (energy) there to take action Parasympathetic (relaxation) Rest & Digest conserves energy both originate in different places / have complementary functions 6 Afferent moving to [more central locations] takes info up to brain Signals toward the brain from outside environment 7 Efferent going away [from the more central locations] Signals from the CNS to a place of interest (ex: muscles) Think: E = E fferent = E xit if afferent gives you sensation, efferent nerves tell blood vessels to constrict 8
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Dorsal toward the back [superior = above/upper] 9 Superior above/upper 10 Rostral towards the beak [anterior = in front] 11 Anterior in front 12 Caudal toward the tail [posterior = behind] 13 Posterior behind 14 Ventral toward the stomach [inferior = below/lower] 15 Inferior below/lower 16 Lateral to the side; more to the side <-- --> 17 Medial toward the middle more middle than whatever you're referring to --> II <-- 18 How are dorsal/ventral/vaudal/rostral different for the head and the trunk? ? 19 What are the sagittal, transverse, horizontal, frontal, coronal, midsagittal planes of section 20 Planes of the brain? Coronal (y axis) Saggital (z axis) Horizontal (x axis) 21 What is trephination/trepanning, why is it done? What cultures was it known in? ancient procedure used for surgical/mystical reasons
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relieves pressure in brain injuries; also used to drain bleeding prehistoric Europe; Inca's in Peru; not uncommon 22 What were the 2 theories about the structure where behavior originates? What theory was held by Hippocrates? Aristotle? Brain hypothesis brain = source of all behavior Hippocrates & Galen Cardiac hypothesis <3 = origin of behavior b/c blood flows there Aristotle: "<3 is warm" & brain=bloodless< 23 Galen's arguments for the brain hypothesis pointed out nerves from sense organs go toward brain pointed out that pressure on brain causes movement to stop (severe cases = death) o pressure on <3 causes pain/doesn't stop voluntary behav 24 Galen Thought brain pumped fluid to nerves o believed the soul to reside in the frontal lobes Behavior came from 4 humors Studied brain anat in gladiators identified many major brain structures & described behav changes as function of brain trauma 25 What was the mechanism that Galen held was responsible for behavior?
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