Physcology - Class 1/2 Terms historical issues Review...

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Class 1/2 – Terms, historical issues Review questions 1. What is trephination or trepanning, why is it done? What cultures was it known in? Trephination is an ancient surgical operation that involves cutting, scraping, chiseling, or drilling a pluglike piece of bone from the skull. This procedure relieves pressure related to brain swelling. Much debate focuses on the reason for trephinations. Researchers have suggested that some cases may have involved a medical reason, such as a skull fracture. Thus, some investigators suggest that trephination was a “magical” form of healing, perhaps for displays of bizarre behaviors, including what we would now recognize as epilepsy or schizophrenia Did it in Peru. The first procedure, similar to the ancient Peruvian. technique of drilling a number of small holes, involves drilling a hole next to a depressed skull fracture to facilitate the elevation and removal of depressed bone fragments. The removal of part of the skull. It is done to remove pressure on the brain, and may also have been done to let out evil spirits. It was known in prehistoric europe and amongst the Inca 2. What were the two theories about the structure where behavior originates? What theory was held by Hippocrates? Aristotle? The Cardiac Hypothesis was held by Aristotle, who reasoned that the heart is warm and the brain was bloodless. The Brain Hypothesis was held by Pythagoras, Hippocrates, and Galen. The influence of Aristotle’s so-called cardiac hypothesis proposing the heart at the seat of such emotions as love and anger can still be seen in words such as heartbroken. 3. What were Galen's arguments for holding the Brain hypothesis? He reasoned that pressure on the heart hurts but pressure on the brain causes loss of function, and he noticed that nerves appear to head to the brain. Galen also noticed that a blow to one part of the head caused loss of function on the other.
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4. What was Galen’s knowledge of anatomy based on? How did Andreas Vesalius improve upon this? Galen was a doctor and treated wounded Gladiators, as well as performing dissections on animals (but never people). Andreas performed dissections on human corpses (some of which he stole), improving knowledge of human brain anatomy.
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