Meaningful non experimental research non experimental

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Unformatted text preview: n We Statistical outcome is probably not due to chance outcome We have Practical Significance when We Practical outcome is large enough to make some meaningful difference in real life. meaningful Non-Experimental Research Non-Experimental (Correlational) This type of research can tell us if X and Y covary; i.e. if X and Y are mathematically related. covary; What does the correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r) tell us? (Pearson’s Non-Experimental (Correlational) Research (Correlational) Advantages No manipulation or control of variables required You can use “in vivo” data Avoid many ethical and practical limitations Limitations: Cannot control or manipulate variables No causal conclusions can be drawn Directionality problem 3rd variable problem Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then: achievement Possibility 1: High achievement might cause increased self-esteem Higher Grades Higher SE Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then : achievement Possibility 2: High self-esteem might cause better grades Higher SE Higher Grades Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The Directionality Problem If self-esteem and academic If achievement are related, then : achievement Possibility 3: A reciprocal relationship may exist between both variables Higher SE Higher Grades Non-Experimental Research: Non-Experimental The 3rd Variable Problem Third Variables: Rather than higher SE causing better grades or better grades boosting SE, a third variable (warm, stable parenting, or high SES) may cause both. ? Self-Esteem Academic Achievement Ethical Issues In Research Ethical Welfare and Rights of subjects must be of Welfare primary concern primary Informed consent is required Deception and Concealment must be Deception justified and debriefing is necessary debriefing Institutional Review Boards must approve design and methods design How will our findings be used and How reported by others? reported...
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