significantly different p 05 from 2012 note white

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Unformatted text preview: available for Hispanic students in 1971 because Hispanic was not reported as a separate category at that time. Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1971–2012 Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments. 1 6 THE NATION’S REPORT CARD R ACIAL/ETHNIC GAPS Thirteen-year-old Hispanic students make long- and short-term gains The racial/ethnic score gap trends at age 13 are similar to those at age 9. Black and Hispanic students both made larger gains from the 1970s than White students, leading to a narrowing of the score gaps in 2012 (figures 9 and 10). Hispanic 13-year-olds are the only racial/ethnic group to make short-term reading score gains. The White – Hispanic gap narrowed 5 points since 2008. Figure 9. Trend in NAEP reading average scores and score gaps for White and Black 13-year-old students The White – Black score gap narrowed 16 points since 1971. * Significantly different (p < .05) from 2012. NOTE: Black includes African American. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin. Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. Figure 10. Trend in NAEP reading average scores and score gaps for White and Hispanic 13-year-old students The White – Hispanic score gap narrowed 9 points since 1975. * Significantly different (p < .05) from 2012. NOTE: White excludes students of Hispanic origin. Hispanic includes Latino. Results are not available for Hispanic students in 1971 because Hispanic was not reported as a separate category at that time. Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1971–2012 Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments. TRENDS IN ACADEMIC PROGRESS 2012 17 R ACIAL/ETHNIC GAPS White, Black, and Hispanic 17-year-olds show improvement since the 1970s Average reading scores for 17-year-olds increased 4 points from the first assessment year for White students, 30 points for Black students, and 21 points for Hispanic students (figures 11 and 12). Larger gains for Black and Hispanic students than for White students narrowed the White – Black and White – Hispanic gaps to about half of what they were in the 1970s. The changing makeup of the student population is one reason why the overall average score for 17­ year-olds has not changed significantly, even though student groups within the overall population are making gains. When an increase in the proportion of typically lower performing students is accompa­ nied by a decrease in the proportion of higher performing students, the overall average score can remain unchanged even though the average scores for both higher and lower performing groups increase. This phenomenon is known as Simpson’s paradox. Figure 11. Trend in NAEP reading average scores and score gaps fo...
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