This phenomenon is known as simpsons paradox figure

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Unformatted text preview: r White and Black 17-year-old students The White – Black score gap narrowed 27 points since 1971. * Significantly different (p < .05) from 2012. NOTE: Black includes African American. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin. Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. Figure 12. Trend in NAEP reading average scores and score gaps for White and Hispanic 17-year-old students The White – Hispanic score gap narrowed about 20 points since 1975. * Significantly different (p < .05) from 2012. NOTE: White excludes students of Hispanic origin. Hispanic includes Latino. Results are not available for Hispanic students in 1971 because Hispanic was not reported as a separate category at that time. Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1971–2012 Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments. 1 8 THE NATION’S REPORT CARD G ENDER GAPS Gender gap narrows from 1971 only at age 9 Female students continue to score higher on average in reading than male students at all three ages in 2012 (figure 13). A larger gain from 1971 to 2012 for male students than for female students narrowed the score gap at age 9. Male students also made gains from 1971 to 2012 at ages 13 and 17; however, the score gaps did not change significantly. Figure 13. Trend in NAEP reading average scores and score gaps for 9-, 13-, and 17-year-old students, by gender Age 9 The gender gap narrowed about 8 points since 1971. Age 13 Age 17 * Significantly different (p < .05) from 2012. NOTE: Score gaps are calculated based on differences between unrounded average scores. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1971–2012 Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments. TRENDS IN ACADEMIC PROGRESS 2012 19 P UBLIC/CATHOLIC SCHOOL GAPS Thirteen-year-old public school students score higher than in 2008 Information about the type of school students were attending was first collected for the long-term trend reading assessment in 1980. Results for private schools overall are not presented in this report because participation rates fell below the required standard for reporting results in 2012. (See the Technical Notes for more information.) Catholic school students have consistently had higher average scores than public school students since that time. In 2012, Catholic school students scored 11 to 23 points higher on average than public school students across the three age groups (figure 14). The score gaps in 2012 did not differ significantly from 1980. As with overall average reading score results, the only age group to show improvement since 2008 was 13-year-olds. In this case, only public school 13-year-olds made significant gains. Figure 14. Trend in NAEP reading average scor...
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