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13 Chemical NonEquilibrium

13 Chemical NonEquilibrium - School of Aerospace...

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1 AE6050 Chemical Nonequilibrium -1 School of Aerospace Engineering Copyright © 2010 by Jer y M. Seitzman. Al rights reserved. •N o n e q u i l i b r i u m c h e m i s t r y , e . g . , w e c a n n o t u s e K p t o f i n d composition – need to find time rate of change of composition •A n a l o g o u s t o v i b r a t i o n a l n o n e q u i l i b r i u m – need dN i / dt for each species i due collisions which change chemical energy •c h em i c a l r e a c t i o n s •R e q u i r e s d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h e m i c a l m e c h a n i s m –s e t o f r e a c t i o n s ( a n d s p e c i e s ) n e c e s s e s s a r y t o c a p t u r e dynamic behavior of composition under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions – usually developed by an “expert” in chemical kinetics Chemical Nonequilibrium Chemical Nonequilibrium -2 School of Aerospace Engineering Copyright © 2010 by Jer y M. Seitzman. Al rights reserved. Chemical Kinetics •S t u d y o f n o n e q u i l i b r i umc h i c a l p r o c e s s e s –e lemen ta ry reac t ion ra te s Global reaction rate (global mechanism) Elementary reaction rates (detailed mechanism ) NO O N 2 2 2 o ± > @ ? dt NO d NO N N O NO O O N M NO M O N M O O M O ± l ± ± l ± ± l ± ± ± ± l ± 2 2 2 2 2 moles/cm 3 /sec M NO M O N NO NO O O N M N N M N ± l ± ± ± l ± ± ± l ± 2 2 contain many intermediate species, often unstable radicals
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2 AE6050 Chemical Nonequilibrium -3 School of Aerospace Engineering Copyright © 2010 by Jer y M. Seitzman. Al rights reserved. Reaction Rate •G e n e r a l e l em e n t a r y r e a c t i o n •R e a c t i o n r a t e ( RR ) • Example ¦ ¦ c c o c n i i i n i i i M M 1 1 Q > @ ± ² i i i RR dt M d c ³ c c N NO O N N ´ o ´ ´ >@ dt N d dt NO d ± ² RR RR ³ ³ 2 1 RR Chemical Nonequilibrium -4 School of Aerospace Engineering Copyright © 2010 by Jer y M. Seitzman. Al rights reserved.
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