Cog Sci 2140 Final Exam Review

# Cog Sci 2140 Final Exam Review - Cog Sci 2140 Final...

This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

Cog Sci 2140 Final Review (Prelim 3) Thinking I, Lec 1 Problems : situations that can’t be mitigated thru reflex action. Types of thinking: - Problem solving (typing, composition) -Reasoning (what will happen if I do _?) -Decision making (weigh alternate choices) Problem spaces . Ex: space state of the Towers of Hanoi problem; each possible route (27) is mapped in a pyramid from top to bottom. Each possible state of system is assigned a point. Geometry --> by all the operations it takes to transform system from one state to another. Neighbors = alternative ways system can be transformed into the next state (different possible paths). Ex II: tic-tac-toe “tree” problem space sans cyclical paths). ~27,000 moves. 1 . Map state space. 2. move thru legal operations 3. connect initial and goal state. Typing involves 54 muscles --> 54-dimensional problem space. Planning path thru high-D space. Search algorithms : program used to map “tree” space state of chess. Can’t map everything; poorer moves discarded, optimal moves for that context are kept. Heuristics : methods to help solve a problem leading to learning and discovery. experimentation and trial and error techniques. rapidly come to a solution that is reasonably close to the 'optimal solution'."rules of thumb", educated guesses, intuitive judgments or simply common sense. Search : start in one direction and move in the direction that prob. => improvement. Search procedure = mindless mechanical steps of finding path Chess has a maximal depth after which the search must be halted. Computational strategy: search + heuristic evaluation of intermediate steps. Sets of moves are grouped using hierarchical abstraction (end game, openings. ..). Ex: experienced player much better @ recognizing meaningful positions from random ones. problem solving = hill climbing : height = desirability of the corresponding state. get to desired state from the initial one. not always easy to see highest peak from current position. based on local altitude info. “jitter”: programs can randomly leave local maximum in hopes of picking path to higher peak. embodied problem solving : rely on the physics of the body (ex: is this a pitcher? faster response when handle is on same side as yes button) situated problem solving : rely on the physics of the environment. distributed problem solving : many problem solvers (heuristic search algorithms) > 1 (means -end analysis): reduce diffs present<-->goal state by operators to state space=focus models : simulate part of external reality relevant to problem using a mental model=simulation counterfactuals: hypotheses about conseqs of planned action/action never performed (what if) Regret: mediated by same circuits as counterfactual thinking Uniformity of counterfactuals : indicates that cognition uses statistical regularities of world

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

## This note was uploaded on 01/10/2009 for the course COGST 2140 taught by Professor Edelman, s during the Fall '08 term at Cornell.

### Page1 / 5

Cog Sci 2140 Final Exam Review - Cog Sci 2140 Final...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document
Ask a homework question - tutors are online