part 2-5 basic components, structure and logic of argumentation

Unsound arguments unsound an argument that has at

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Unformatted text preview: guments Unsound: An argument that has at least one false premise Example: i. Cows are insects. ii. Insects are mammals. iii. So cows are mammals. Example: i. All dogs have 5 legs. ii. Fido is a dog. iii. Therefore Fido has 5 legs Sound Arguments Sound: An argument that is valid and contains only TRUE premises Example: i. All cows are mammals. ii. All mammals are animals. iii. So cows are animals. Valid and Sound Arguments All athletes are professional golfers T or F? Lebron James is an athlete T or F? Therefore, Lebron James is a professional golfer T or F? All humans are whales T or F? All whales are mammals T or F? So, all humans are mammals T or F? All Detroit Lions are football players T or F? Calvin Johnson is a football players T or F? Therefore, Calvin Johnson is a Detroit Lion T or F? Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Part 5: Deductive Reasoning A process of reasoning in which we start with a general rule or conclusion and look to see whether specific evidence supports, or fits, that previously held belief Deductive Reasoning 1. What is the conclusion? 2. What evidence supports it? 3. Is that evidence logical? If you can answer yes to question 3, then the conclusion should be logical and the argument valid and sound. Many deductive arguments are valid Click to View Video on YouTube Inductive Reasoning A process of reasoning in which we use small, specific examples or observation to reach a BIG, general rule, conclusion or theory Inductive Reasoning When detectives arrive at the scene of a crime, the first thing they do is look for clues that can help them piece together what happened. 1. What have you observed? What evidence is available? 2. What can you conclude from that evidence? 3. Is that conclusion logical? Many Inductive arguments are strong but invalid Click to View Video on YouTube Inductive or Deductive Inductive: Evidence Deductive: Conclusion Conclusion (IEC) Evidence (DCE) Inductive or Deductive If the truth of the premises does not definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion, but provides a strong reason to believe the conclusion true, then you have an inductive argument If the truth of the premises definitely establishes the truth of the conclusion then you have a valid deductive argument Inductive or Deductive 1. The Giants have lost their last seven games. Thus, they will probably lose their next game. 2. If you brush and floss your teeth daily then you will have fewer cavities. Marie brushes and flosses her teeth daily. Thus, she will have fewer cavities. 3. Jones will play tennis today if Smith plays. Jones will not play tennis today. Therefore, Smith will not play. 4. 4 out of 5 times I beat Corey at pool and I'm going to play him tomorrow. So, I'll very likely win. 5. No man has ever gotten pregnant. Therefore, no man ever will get pregnant. Inductive or Deductive 1. The Giants have lost …Inductive argument – uses 7 specific examples to reach a bigger conclusion 2. If you brush and floss your teeth …Deductive argument – states the broadly accepted research and reaches a specific conclusion 3. Jones will play tennis today if …Deductive argument –gives an overarching rule that governs the behavior to predict a specific outcome 4. 4 out of 5 times I beat Corey…Inductive argument – uses specific examples to predict the conclusion 5. No man has ever gotten pregnant…Inductive argument – the conclusion is a BIG, overarching rule based on numerous specific examples to date. More Practice Here...
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