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Unformatted text preview: g the progressive growth of microbiological organisms that can cause food poisoning and other food borne illness.” (FAO/WHO 1993) For this paper, ‘Perishable Goods’ is defined as foods and non‐food plants including flowers which can degrade over time and are sensitive to temperature changes (SITPRO 2009) 2 . Fisheries and crustacean products (HS 03) have been included since they are important for Asia‐Pacific trade. The following HS categories have been used to extract data from COMTRADE: 02: Meat and Edible Meat Offal; 03: Fish and Crustaceans, Molluscs and other Aquatic Invertebrates; 04: Dairy Produce; Birds’ Eggs; Natural Honey; Edible Products of Animal Origin; 06: Live Trees and other Plants; Bulbs, Roots and the like; Cut Flowers and Ornamental Foliage; 07: Edible Vegetables and certain Root Tubers; 08: Edible Fruit and Nuts; Peel of Citrus Fruits or Melons; 09: Coffee, Tea, Mate and Spices; 16: Preparations of Meat, Fish or Crustaceans, Molluscs or other Aquatic Invertebrates; 20: Preparations of Vegetables, Fruit, Nuts or other parts of Plants. 1 The term Agricultural Product has been interchangeably used with Agricultural Goods in this paper. Agricultural exports refer to total exports value of the agricultural products. The term Agricultural Trade refers to import and export of Agricultural Products 2 The UK trade facilitation body SITPRO used that definition but excluded ‘non‐food plants including flowers’. SITPRO is now non‐operational 2 ii. Cereals – This includes rice, maize, wheat, barley and other cereals. The HS code for cereals is 10. Cereals feed a large share of the global population including both the rich and the poor; as such, they are a highly important agricultural commodity. iii. Other Products– This sub‐category includes animal or vegetable fats, sugar, cocoa, preparations of cereals, beverages, seeds and other mostly food products. The following HS codes have been used to extract data for this category: 01: Live animals 17: Sugars and sugar confectionery 05: Products of animal origin, nes or included 18: Cocoa and cocoa preparations 11: Prod.mill.indus; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 19: Prep.of cereal, flour, starch/milk; pastrycooks’ product 12: Oil seed, oleagi fruits; miscell grain; seed fruit 21: Miscellaneous edible preparations 13: Lac; gums, resins & other vegetable saps and extracts 22: Beverages, spirits and vinegar 14: Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products nes 15: Animal/veg fats & oils & their cleavage products, etc 23: Residues & waste from the food indust; prepr ani fodder 24: Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes C. The Status and Drivers of Agricultural Trade in Asia and the Pacific 1. A Transitioning Asia‐Pacific Region The Asia‐Pacific is a region of contrast. It is an important player in the world with a quarter of the world GDP and trade originating in the region. It consists of several economies of various types and structures. Two of the world’s largest economies are in this region, namely China and Japan, and much smaller economies such as Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Nepal. A handful of emerging economies, mostly from East and Southeast Asia, are growing faster in trade also. There are evermore investment destinations in the region. Agricultural mechanization, modern production methods and high‐yield crop varieties are replacing traditional practices of agriculture. The heterogeneity of Asia Pacific countries is also reflected in the Doing Business Indicators which serve as one benchmark for the country’s approach to trade facilitation. Singapore ranks first in overall ease of Doing Business and ease of Trading Across Borders indicators while Lao People’s Democratic Republic ranks 165 out of 183 economies (World 3 Bank 2011). In Singapore, to trade one standardized container costs around $450 whereas for the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the cost is around $2,000. However, the diverse structure of the economies and the avail...
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