chapter_1 - What is microbiology? Chapter 1 The History and...

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1 1 Chapter 1 The History and Scope of Microbiology 2 What is microbiology? study of organisms too small to be clearly seen by the unaided eye (i.e., microorganisms) microorganisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi 3 Discovery of Microorganisms Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) first person to observe and describe micro- organisms accurately Figure 1.1b 4 The Conflict over Spontaneous Generation spontaneous generation living organisms can develop from nonliving or decomposing matter Francesco Redi (1626-1697) disproved spontaneous generation for large animals showed that maggots on decaying meat came from fly eggs
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2 5 But could spontaneous generation be true for microorganisms? John Needham (1713-1781) his experiment: mutton broth in flasks boiled sealed results: broth became cloudy and contained microorganisms Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) his experiment: broth in flasks sealed boiled results: no growth of microorganisms 6 Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) his experiments placed nutrient solution in flasks created flasks with long, curved necks boiled the solutions left flasks exposed to air results: no growth of microorganisms Figure 1.3 7 Final blow to theory of spontaneous generation John Tyndall (1820-1893) demonstrated that dust carries microorganisms showed that if dust was absent, nutrient broths remained sterile, even if directly exposed to air also provided evidence for the existence of exceptionally heat-resistant forms of
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chapter_1 - What is microbiology? Chapter 1 The History and...

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