chapter_3 - An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structure...

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1 1 Chapter 3 Procaryotic Cell Structure and Function 2 An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structure a wide variety of sizes, shapes, and cellular aggregation patterns simpler than eucaryotic cell structure unique structures not observed in eucaryotes 3 Size, Shape, and Arrangement cocci (s., coccus) – spheres diplococci (s., diplococcus) – pairs streptococci – chains staphylococci – grape-like clusters tetrads – 4 cocci in a square sarcinae – cubic configuration of 8 cocci 4 Size, Shape, and Arrangement bacilli (s., bacillus) – rods coccobacilli – very short rods vibrios – curved rods mycelium – network of long, multinucleate filaments
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2 5 Size, Shape, and Arrangement spirilla (s., spirillum) – rigid helices spirochetes – flexible helices pleomorphic – organisms that are variable in shape 6 7 •largest – 50 μ m in diameter • smallest – 0.3 μ m in diameter Figure 3.3 8 Procaryotic Cell Organization
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3 9 Figure 3.4 10 11 Procaryotic Cell Membranes membranes are an absolute requirement for all living organisms plasma membrane encompasses the cytoplasm some procaryotes also have internal membrane systems 12 The Plasma Membrane contains lipids and proteins lipids usually form a bilayer proteins are embedded in or associated with lipids highly organized, asymmetric, flexible, and dynamic
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4 13 The asymmetry of most membrane lipids polar ends interact with water hydrophilic nonpolar ends insoluble in water hydrophobic Figure 3.5 14 Other membrane lipids Figure 3.6 15 Membrane proteins peripheral proteins loosely associated with the membrane and easily removed integral proteins embedded within the membrane and not easily removed 16 Figure 3.7 Fluid mosaic model of membrane structure
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5 17 Archaeal membranes composed of unique lipids some have a monolayer structure instead of a bilayer structure 18 Functions of the plasma membrane separation of cell from its environment selectively permeable barrier some molecules are allowed to pass into or out of the cell transport systems aid in movement of molecules 19 More functions… location of crucial metabolic processes detection of and response to chemicals in surroundings with the aid of special receptor molecules in the membrane 20 Internal Membrane Systems mesosomes may be invaginations of the plasma membrane possible roles cell wall formation during cell division chromosome replication and distribution secretory processes may be artifacts of chemical fixation process
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6 21 Other internal membrane systems complex in-foldings of the plasma membrane observed in many photosynthetic bacteria and in procaryotes with high respiratory activity may be aggregates of spherical vesicles, flattened vesicles, or tubular membranes 22 The Cytoplasmic Matrix substance between membrane and
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chapter_3 - An Overview of Procaryotic Cell Structure...

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