chapter_9 - 1 1 Chapter 9 Metabolism: Energy Release and...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 Chapter 9 Metabolism: Energy Release and Conservation 2 An Overview of Metabolism metabolism total of all chemical reactions occurring in cell catabolism breakdown of larger, more complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones energy is released and some is trapped and made available for work anabolism synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones with the input of energy 3 Sources of energy Figure 9.1 electrons released during oxidation of chemical energy sources must be accepted by an electron acceptor microorganisms vary in terms of the acceptors they use 4 Chemoorganotrophic metabolism fermentation energy source oxidized and degraded using endogenous electron acceptor often occurs under anaerobic conditions limited energy made available 2 5 Chemoorganotrophic metabolism aerobic respiration energy source degraded using oxygen as exogenous electron acceptor yields large amount of energy, primarily by electron transport activity 6 Chemoorganotrophic metabolism anaerobic respiration energy source oxidized and degraded using molecules other than oxygen as exogenous electron acceptors can yield large amount of energy (depending on reduction potential of energy source and electron acceptor), primarily by electron transport activity 7 Overview of aerobic catabolism three-stage process large molecules (polymers) small molecules (monomers) initial oxidation and degradation to pyruvate oxidation and degradation of pyruvate by the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) 8 Figure 9.3 many different energy sources are funneled into common degradative pathways ATP made primarily by oxidative phosphory- lation 3 9 Two functions of organic energy sources oxidized to release energy supply carbon and building blocks for anabolism amphibolic pathways function both as catabolic and anabolic pathways Figure 9.4 10 The Breakdown of Glucose to Pyruvate Three common routes glycolysis pentose phosphate pathway Entner-Doudoroff pathway 11 The Glycolytic Pathway also called Embden-Meyerhof pathway occurs in cytoplasmic matrix of both procaryotes and eucaryotes 12 Figure 9.5 addition of phosphates primes the pump oxidation step generates NADH high-energy molecules used to synthesize ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation 4...
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chapter_9 - 1 1 Chapter 9 Metabolism: Energy Release and...

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