chapter_11 - The Central Dogma Chapter 11 Genes: Structure,...

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1 1 Chapter 11 Genes: Structure, Replication, and Mutation 2 The Central Dogma Figure 11.4 3 Procaryotic DNA usually exists as closed circular, supercoiled molecule associated with basic proteins Figure 11.9 relaxed circle supercoiled DNA 4 DNA Replication complex process involving numerous enzymes and proteins in general, process is similar in all organisms
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2 5 Patterns of DNA Synthesis semiconservative each parental strand is conserved two parental strands separate and serve as templates for synthesis of new strands Figure 11.11 6 Patterns of DNA synthesis… in procaryotes bidirectional from a single origin of replication replicon portion of the genome that contains an origin and is replicated as a unit 2 forks move in opposite directions Figure 11.12 7 Some amazing facts 30 proteins required to replicate E. coli chromosome occurs with great fidelity error frequency = 10 -9 or 10 -10 per base pair replicated due to proofreading activity of DNA polymerases III and I occurs very rapidly 750 to 1,000 base pairs/second in procaryotes 50-100 base pairs/second in eucaryotes 8 The Genetic Code the manner in which genetic instructions for polypeptide synthesis are stored within genome colinearity sequence of base pairs in DNA corresponds to the amino acid sequence of polypeptide encoded
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3 9 Establishment of Genetic Code codon genetic code word specifies an amino acid codon meanings deciphered by Marshall Nirenberg, et al. in 1960s 10 Organization of the Code code degeneracy up to six different codons can code for a single amino acid
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chapter_11 - The Central Dogma Chapter 11 Genes: Structure,...

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