chapter_29 - Aquatic Environments and Microorganisms...

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1 1 Chapter 29 Microorganisms in Aquatic Environments 2 Aquatic Environments and Microorganisms aquatic environments vary dramatically surface areas and volumes locations rivers, streams, lakes and oceans human body water-saturated soil pH, temperature, etc. mixing and movement of materials are dominant factors controlling microbial community aquatic microbes may be source of new antibiotics and other useful compounds 3 Gases and Aquatic Microorganisms two gases of major importance to microorganisms oxygen carbon dioxide other gases of importance nitrogen hydrogen methane 4 Oxygen greater distance from O 2 source (e.g., air bubble or surface of water), less O 2 available due to limited diffusion of O 2 through water low oxygen diffusion environments e.g., water often have hypoxic (low O 2 ) or anoxic (no O 2 ) zones high oxygen diffusion environments e.g., film of water on soil particle
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2 5 Figure 29.1 6 as temperature , O 2 levels as elevation , O 2 levels 7 CO 2 as [dissolved CO 2 ] , pH use of CO 2 by autotrophic microorganisms increases pH of many waters 8 Figure 29.2
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3 9 Nutrients in Aquatic Environments levels vary greatly nutrient turnover rates vary marine environments 100s to 1,000s of years marsh and estuarine environments rapid rate of turnover 10 Figure 29.3 Winogradsky Column demonstrates gradients often observed in aquatic environ- ments and under- lying sediments 11 Nutrient Cycles in Aquatic Environments Redfield ratio C:N:P ratio of phytoplankton major primary producers in illuminated waters used to follow nutrient dynamics in water microbial loop cycling of nutrients among microbial populations limits amount of organic matter available to higher consumers 12 Figure 29.4 Microbial loop
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4 13 The Microbial Community wide variety of microbes interesting adaptations allow microbes to survive and prosper in aquatic environments 14 Adaptations to aquatic environments ultramicrobacteria (nanobacteria) volume < 0.08 μ m 3 Thiomargarita namibiensis “world’s largest bacterium” 100 to 300 μ m in diameter uses large internal vacuole to store nitrate used as electron acceptor during sulfide oxidation 15 Figure 29.5 Thiomargarita namibiensis • uses sulfide as energy source • uses nitrate as
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This note was uploaded on 01/11/2009 for the course BICS 300 taught by Professor Dr.d.w.smith during the Spring '07 term at University of Dundee.

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chapter_29 - Aquatic Environments and Microorganisms...

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