8-Mechanical Behavior

8-Mechanical Behavior - STRESS STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS IN...

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STRESS - STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS IN MATERIALS Sequence of Steps to Produce Sheet Metal
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Giant Forge Press Figure 5.4
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Multi-Pass Rolling Operation Figure 5.1
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Sheet Metal Rolling and Coiling Figure 5.3a
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Casting Molds Figure 5.9
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Forging Dies Wire Drawing Operation
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Deep Drawing Operation TYPES OF DEFORMATION Elastic Deformation When a material undergoing deformation returns to its original dimensions. Plastic Deformation When a material is deformed to such an extent that it cannot fully return to its original shape. The material is permanently deformed.
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ENGINEERING STRESS Stress = F (average uniaxial tensile force) A o (original cross-sectional area) Units SI newtons per square meter (N/m 2 ) or pascals (Pa) due to scale use (MPa) US pounds per square inch (psi) Due to scale use (ksi) Conversions 1 psi = 6.89 x 10 3 Pa 1 N/m 2 = 1 Pa ENGINEERING STRAIN Strain = l f - l o = Δ l (change in length) l o l o ( original length ) Units SI meters per meter (m/m) US inches per inch (in/in) % engineering strain = Strain x 100 = % elongation
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Figure 5.21 Tensile Testing Machine
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Schematic Drawing of Tensile Test Frame Strain Extensometer
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TENSILE TEST Used to evaluate the strength of materials. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES ( Important for structural design ) 1. Modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) 2. Yield strength 3. Ultimate tensile strength 4. Percent elongation 5. Percent reduction in area at fracture
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MODULUS OF ELASTICITY Stress and strain in the elastic region of the engineering stress-strain diagram is described by Hooke's Law. σ (stress) = E x ε (strain) where E is the modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) E (elastic modulus) = stress strain = σ ε Elastic Modulus of Materials Materials Elastic Moduli psi GPa Steels 30 x 10 6 207 Aluminum 10 x 10 6 69 Glass 10 x 10 6 69 Wood 1 x 10 6 7 Polyester 4 x 10 5 3
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YIELD STRENGTH Stress at which significant plastic deformation begins.
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