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RATIONAL, NATURAL AND OPEN SYSTEMS OF ORGANIZATION1Compare and contrast the rational, natural, and open systems oforganizations. Valerie SohSchool of Business, Liberty UniversityAuthor NoteValerie SohI have no known conflict of interest to disclose.Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Valerie SohEmail: [email protected]
RATIONAL, NATURAL AND OPEN SYSTEMS OF ORGANIZATION2Introduction Organizations play a great role in modern society and exist in every aspect of our social life. An organization can be defined using different perspectives based on the different aspects of organizations. The definitions include; a rational, natural and open system perspectives. The main focus is to compare and contrast the rational, natural, and open systems of organizations by addressing the defining characteristics, the relationship between the three perspectives, the theoretical viewpoints and personal perspectives. Defining characteristicsAccording to the rational perspective, the behavior of organizations and their participants is viewed as actions performed by purposeful and coordinated agents. Rational system theorist stress goal specificity and formalization because each of these elements make an important contribution to the rationality of an organizational action. Rational systems theorist assume the existence of and presume the importance of a formalized structure, but just a few make explicit the contributions that formalization makes to rationality of behavior in organizations (Scott & Davis, 2015). Based on a study by Őnday (2018), Rational systems models focus on formal structure as a tool for the efficient achievement of specific organizational goals. Specific goals aim participants with unambiguous criteria for selecting among alternatives. A highly formalized structure provide participants with explicit rules and roles relations that manage their interactional behavior (Őnday, 2018).While rational systems perspective deals with goal specification and structure formalization, natural perspective places more emphasis on goal complexity and informal structure. Natural system models presume the existence of certain operative goals that must be met for the system wants to survive. Natural system theorists accept that goals can be pluralistic,
RATIONAL, NATURAL AND OPEN SYSTEMS OF ORGANIZATION3rather than unitary. Goal complexity and structure informality makes participants interactional behavior too complex and unpredictable (Őnday, 2018). Natural system advocates emphasize that organizations are collectives. Natural system theorist acknowledge the existence of goal specificity and formalization as characteristics but also argue about other characteristics shared with all social groups (Scott & Davis, 2015).