If a node runs out of candidates to try it

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Unformatted text preview: initial mix-net route before normal routing. This effectively repositions the start of the chain away from the requester. If a node sends a query to a recipient that is already in the chain, the message is bounced back and the node tries to use the next-closest key instead. If a node runs out of candidates to try, it pieces'of'16KB'each'and'' sent'to'N'peers' ' Content'download:' to'download'a'file,'a'peer'must'first'register'with'a'Tracker' Tracker'returns'a'random'list'of'peers'who'have'the'file' peer'opens'about'5'TCP'connections'to'the'provided'peers' a'peer'will'only'upload'to'peers'from'whom'it'can'also'download' (“tit7for7tat”)' Content'Delivery'Infrastructure' Peer7to7peer'(p2p):' •  hybrid'p2p'with'a'centralized'server' •  pure'p2p' •  hierarchical'p2p' •  end7host'(p2p)'multicast' ' Content7Distribution'Network'(CDN)' Multicast'Delivery' Uses'of'multicasting:' •  video'conferencing,'distance'learning,'distributed' computation,'p2p'delivery,'multi7player'gaming,'etc.' Multicast'design'goals:' Modes'of'Delivery' Unicast,'broadcast,'multicast' ' Assuming'a'video'conference'' involving'S,'D2,'and'D3 ' D1 D2 S R D3 D4 •  unicasting:'two'copies'of'packets'from'S'are'sent'over'the' SR'link' •  broadcasting:'one'copy'of'packet'sent'from'S'to'all' destinations,'but'packet'sent'to'D1'and'D4'unnecessarily' •  multicasting:'one'copy'of'packets'from'S'is'sent'over'the' SR'link,'R'then'sends'one'copy'each'to'D2'and'D3 Multicast'Group'Management' Issues'in'multicast'group'management:' 1.  how'to'advertise/discover'a'multicast'group?' 2.  how'to'join'a'multicast'group?' 3.  delivering'multicast'packets'to'the'group' ' •  can'support'millions'of'receivers'per'multicast'group' IPv4'multicast:' •  receivers'can'join'and'leave'any'group'at'any'time' •  use'multicast'(Class7D)'addresses'as'anonymous' rendezvous'point:'224.0.0.0(to(239.255.255.255((RPC(3171)( •  265(M(mulCcast(groups(at(most( •  senders'don’t'have'to'know'all'receivers' •  senders'don’t'have'to'be'members'of'a'group'to'send' •  there'could'be'more'than'one'senders'per'group' •  create'a'well7known'multicast'group'(...
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