F13 lecture 23

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Unformatted text preview: popula1ons X and Y L loci, each with 2 or more alleles C- value •  The amount of DNA (in picograms) in a haploid nucleus (gamete) of a species •  Varies hugely among species –  Animals: 3300 fold –  Land plants: 1000 fold •  Just a]er the discovery that DNA was the hereditary material – it was assumed that cells of species in the same group (e.g. mammals) should have similar gene numbers and hence similar amounts of nuclear DNA •  Resolu1on of the paradox: discovery of (1) the existence of non- coding DNA, including highly repe11ve DNA, and (2) discovery that species vary widely in the amount of non- coding (especially repe11ve) DNA hpp://www.polypompholyx.com/wp- content/ uploads/2012/09/c- value_paradox.png Thanks to Prof. Grant Pogson, UC Santa Cruz hpp://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio175/Lectures/11_Molecular_Evolu1on.pdf hpp://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio175/Lectures/11_Molecular_Evolu1on.pdf hpp://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio175/Lectures/11_Molecular_Evolu1on.pdf hpp://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio175/Lectures/11_Molecular_Evolu1on.pdf hpp://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio175/Lectures/11_Molecular_Evolu1on.pdf Recall: a SILENT nucleo1de subs1tu1on (aka SILENT muta1on) is one that changes the codon but does not change the encoded amino acid a REPLACEMENT subs1tu1on changes the amino acid When the rates of silent subs1tu1on at a gene are compare...
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