The most common environments have the smallest

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Unformatted text preview: phenotypic value = the measurement of the trait •  P = G + E •  G = genotypic value •  E = environmental devia2on (all non- gene2c effects on the phenotype) –  typically: developmental/rearing environment –  maternal environment (important for both plants and animals) – complicated because some shared gene2c basis (can also be part of G) how to measure E •  Environmental effects can only be measured by growing replicates of gene2cally iden2cal individuals under the same condi2ons –  use clones or inbred lines –  oJen not possible in natural popula2ons •  Environmental factors are oJen assumed to vary con2nuously –  may average out over many different environments environment 1 2  ‘ 11  ‘ 1 0  ‘ 9  ‘ 8  ‘ 7  ‘ 6  ‘ 5  ‘ 4  ‘ 3  ‘ 2  ‘ 1  ‘ 0 effect of environment frequency of environment in the previous example, the most common environments have the smallest effects and the least common environments have the largest effects another way...
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