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Unformatted text preview: lower case leAers = average of offspring other formulae are used for other ma0ng designs (don’t worry about here) what causes gene0c covariance among traits? •  two main causes •  pleiotropy – many genes (most genes, actually) affect more than one trait •  linkage between the genes affec0ng the two traits –  in a popula0on: linkage disequilibrium •  can occur even when genes are not closely linked in the genome –  selec0on –  popula0on admixture –  drio pleiotropy more “composite” traits (e.g. morphology, metabolic rate) will have more pleiotropy than simpler traits (e,g, rates of single enzyma0c steps) morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea) flower color and herbivory larvae of herbivorous beetle Charidotella significant (P = 0.04) data: Simms and Bucher (1996) images: hAp://www.discoverlife.org/IM/I_DW/0002/320/Charidotella_ambita,I_DW249.jpg hAp://gardendoctor.wordpress.com/2010/04/28/whats- the- story- morning- glory/ linkage disequilibrium (LD) (also called “game0c phase disequilibrium”) •  typically quan0fied for two loci, two alleles •  devia0on of two- locus genotypes from that expected under independent segrega0on •  e.g. pA=0.2...
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