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Covariance similar to correla0on in that can be

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Unformatted text preview: posi0ve) rP indicates that the measure of one trait can generally be predicted by knowing the measure of the other trait –  there is almost always some scaAer –  the more scaAer, the more independent the varia0on correla0on and covariance •  conceptually similar and somewhat interchangeable •  mathema0cally dis0nct •  Covariance: similar to equa0on for Variance (sums single trait devia0ons) Covariance: sums "cross product" of two traits covariance •  similar to correla0on in that –  can be posi0ve or nega0ve •  variances can only be posi0ve –  high posi0ve covariance means same thing as high posi0ve correla0on –  high nega0ve covariance means same thing as high nega0ve correla0on –  etc. correla0on •  is a standardized covariance •  varies between - 1 and 1 •  => unlike covariance, can be used to easily compare different traits (gets rid of the units problem) phenotypic correla0on rP •  has two different components •  gene0c correla0on –  contribu0on of shared gene0c basis to the similarity between two traits •  pleiotropy (see later slides) •  linkage disequlibrium (see later...
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