Phys A L3

Phys A L3 - Physical Anthropology Lecture 3(Chapter 2 I...

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10/05/2007 Physical Anthropology: Lecture 3 (Chapter 2) I. Definitions A. Genotype: Particular combination of genes or alleles that an individual carries B. Phenotype: Observable characteristics of an organism (pea color) C. Dominant: The A allele is dominant because an individual with only one copy of the allele has the same phenotype as an individual with 2 copies of the allele (yellow peas) D. Recessive: The a allele because it has no effect on the phenotype in heterozygotes II. Linkage and Recombination A. Mendel performed experiments involving 2 traits that showed separate characteristics segregate independently 1. Crossed plants with smooth yellow seeds and with wrinkled green seeds a) All F1 individuals were smooth yellow b) F2: 9 smooth yellow, 3 smooth green, 3 wrinkled yellow, and 3 wrinkled green B. Demonstrates that sexual reproduction shuffles genes producing a new combination of traits C. Recombination is important in maintain variation D. Independent segregation occurs when traits measured are controlled by genes that reside on different chromosomes 1. Genes are arranged on chromosomes like “beads on a string” and have particular sites (locus) E. Genome: all of the genes carried on all chromosomes F. Traits segregate independently only if loci that affect traits are on different chromosomes, because links between loci on the same chromosomes alters the pattern of segregation G. When loci for different traits on the same chromosomes that are considered “linked” (visa versa shows that they are unlinked)
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Phys A L3 - Physical Anthropology Lecture 3(Chapter 2 I...

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