This is a good article. Click here for more information.Escherichia coliFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to navigationJump to search"E. coli" redirects here. For the protozoan commensal, see Entamoeba coli. Forthe grey whale, see Eschrichtius robustus.This article is about Escherichia coli as a species. For E. coli in medicine,see Pathogenic Escherichia coli. For E. coli in molecular biology, seeEscherichia coli (molecular biology).Escherichia coliE coli at 10000x, original.jpgScientific classificationeditDomain:BacteriaPhylum:ProteobacteriaClass:GammaproteobacteriaOrder:EnterobacteralesFamily:EnterobacteriaceaeGenus:EscherichiaSpecies:E. coliBinomial nameEscherichia coli(Migula 1895)Castellani and Chalmers 1919SynonymsBacillus coli communis Escherich 1885Escherichia coli (/rkikola/), also known as E. coli (/iˌɛʃəˈ ɪə ˈʊɪˌ ːkola/), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliformˈʊɪbacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestineof warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless,but some serotypes (EPEC, ETEC etc.) can cause serious food poisoning in theirhosts, and are occasionally responsible for food contamination incidents thatprompt product recalls. The harmless strains are part of the normalmicrobiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,(which helps blood to clot) and preventing colonisation of the intestine withpathogenic bacteria, having a mutalistic relationship. E. coli is expelledinto the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in freshfecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowlyafterwards.E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut microbiota, and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenicstrains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside thebody for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicatororganisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. Agrowing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E.coli which can survive for many days and grow outside a host.The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratorysetting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is achemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbonand energy. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism,and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, whereit has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinantDNA. Under favorable conditions, it takes as little as 20 minutes to reproduce.