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Phys A L20-21

Phys A L20-21 - Physical Anthropology Lecture 20-21(Chapter...

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11/30/2007 & 12/03/2007 Physical Anthropology: Lecture 20-21 (Chapter 11) I. Hominin Community Diversifies (2-4mya) A. Beginning—4mya hominin lineage proliferates and over the nest 2mya there were between 4-7 species of hominins living in Africa B. A number of different taxonomic schemes have been used to classify these but here we are going to use Wood & Collards (1999) schema C. Australopithecus 1. 6 species (A. anamensis, afarensis, africanus, garhi, habilis,rudolfensis) 2. Genus name means “Southern Ape” 3. Australopithecines were small bipeds with teeth, skull & jaws adapted to generalized diet D. Paranthropus 1. 3 species (P.aethiopicus, robustus, boisei) 2. Genus name means “parallel to man” coined by Professor Robert Broom 3. Similar to Australopithecus from neck down except had massive teeth, jaws & skull E. Kenyanthropus 1. 1 species (Kenyanthropus platyops) 2. Genus name means “Kenyan man” found in Northern Kenya 3. Do not know much about this taxa except that they had flattened face and small teeth. F. A.anamensis 1. 1994 (Meave Leakey) found new hominin species at Kanapoi and Allia Bay, two sites near lake Turkana in Kenya 2. Found upper and lower jaw, part of tibia and numerous teeth and also humerus (found in 1970’s) associated 3. Species name derived from “anam” = word for ‘lake’ in language of people living around Lake Turkana 4. 50 specimens dated between 3.8-4.2mya 5. Several feature mark it as a hominin a) Large molars, thick enamel, smaller canines, shape of knee and ankle indicate bipedal, but arm bones indicate adaptation to live in trees 6. Lack several derived traits seen in Australopithecus a) Small, ellipse shaped ear holes, similar to apes but later australopithecines are larger and more rounded, dental arcade more U-shaped dental and less V- shaped, Chin recedes more sharply, may have larger canines than those seen in later hominins 7. Fossils of other animals were found at Kanapoi and Allia Bay, suggesting a mixture of habitat including dry woodlands and gallery forests along rivers ad more open grasslands G. A.afarensis 1. Found at several sites in Africa but most extensive collection from Ethiopia 2. 1970’s French-American team led by Maurice Taieb and Don Johanson began searching for hominid fossils at Hadar, in the Afar depression of north eastern Ethiopia
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